This is the second of two articles and discusses problems relating to the curvature of space, shortest distances on surfaces, triangulations of surfaces and representation by graphs.
This article invites you to get familiar with a strategic game called "sprouts". The game is simple enough for younger children to understand, and has also provided experienced mathematicians with. . . .
A connected graph is a graph in which we can get from any vertex to any other by travelling along the edges. A tree is a connected graph with no closed circuits (or loops. Prove that every tree has. . . .
Eulerian and Hamiltonian circuits are defined with some simple examples and a couple of puzzles to illustrate Hamiltonian circuits.
Prove that you cannot form a Magic W with a total of 12 or less or with a with a total of 18 or more.
Here is a proof of Euler's formula in the plane and on a sphere together with projects to explore cases of the formula for a polygon with holes, for the torus and other solids with holes and the. . . .
How many tours visit each vertex of a cube once and only once? How many return to the starting point?
Toni Beardon has chosen this article introducing a rich area for practical exploration and discovery in 3D geometry
The knight's move on a chess board is 2 steps in one direction and one step in the other direction. Prove that a knight cannot visit every square on the board once and only (a tour) on a 2 by n board. . . .
Label this plum tree graph to make it totally magic!
The tangles created by the twists and turns of the Conway rope trick are surprisingly symmetrical. Here's why!
Show there are exactly 12 magic labellings of the Magic W using the numbers 1 to 9. Prove that for every labelling with a magic total T there is a corresponding labelling with a magic total 30-T.
A personal investigation of Conway's Rational Tangles. What were the interesting questions that needed to be asked, and where did they lead?
Label the joints and legs of these graph theory caterpillars so that the vertex sums are all equal.
Find all the ways of placing the numbers 1 to 9 on a W shape, with 3 numbers on each leg, so that each set of 3 numbers has the same total.
in how many ways can you place the numbers 1, 2, 3 … 9 in the nine regions of the Olympic Emblem (5 overlapping circles) so that the amount in each ring is the same?
Explore creating 'factors and multiples' graphs such that no lines joining the numbers cross
Look for the common features in these graphs. Which graphs belong together?
Imagine you had to plan the tour for the Olympic Torch. Is there an efficient way of choosing the shortest possible route?
How many different colours would be needed to colour these different patterns on a torus?
The Four Colour Conjecture was first stated just over 150 years ago, and finally proved conclusively in 1976. It is an outstanding example of how old ideas can be combined with new discoveries. prove. . . .
The reader is invited to investigate changes (or permutations) in the ringing of church bells, illustrated by braid diagrams showing the order in which the bells are rung.
Given probabilities of taking paths in a graph from each node, use matrix multiplication to find the probability of going from one vertex to another in 2 stages, or 3, or 4 or even 100.
Find the point whose sum of distances from the vertices (corners) of a given triangle is a minimum.
Some simple ideas about graph theory with a discussion of a proof of Euler's formula relating the numbers of vertces, edges and faces of a graph.
The game of go has a simple mechanism. This discussion of the principle of two eyes in go has shown that the game does not depend on equally clear-cut concepts.
This article explains the use of the idea of connectedness in networks, in two different ways, to bring into focus the basics of the game of Go, namely capture and territory.
Given the nets of 4 cubes with the faces coloured in 4 colours, build a tower so that on each vertical wall no colour is repeated, that is all 4 colours appear.
Read about the problem that tickled Euler's curiosity and led to a new branch of mathematics!
An account of how mathematics is used in computer games including geometry, vectors, transformations, 3D graphics, graph theory and simulations.
Given the graph of a supply network and the maximum capacity for flow in each section find the maximum flow across the network.
This article explains the concepts involved in scientific mathematical computing. It will be very useful and interesting to anyone interested in computer programming or mathematics.
Find out some of the mathematics behind neural networks.