Four identical right angled triangles are drawn on the sides of a square. Two face out, two face in. Why do the four vertices marked with dots lie on one line?

This is the second article on right-angled triangles whose edge lengths are whole numbers.

The first of two articles on Pythagorean Triples which asks how many right angled triangles can you find with the lengths of each side exactly a whole number measurement. Try it!

It is obvious that we can fit four circles of diameter 1 unit in a square of side 2 without overlapping. What is the smallest square into which we can fit 3 circles of diameter 1 unit?

Can you find the areas of the trapezia in this sequence?

Semicircles are drawn on the sides of a rectangle. Prove that the sum of the areas of the four crescents is equal to the area of the rectangle.

The largest square which fits into a circle is ABCD and EFGH is a square with G and H on the line CD and E and F on the circumference of the circle. Show that AB = 5EF. Similarly the largest. . . .

Find the area of the annulus in terms of the length of the chord which is tangent to the inner circle.

What can you say about the lengths of the sides of a quadrilateral whose vertices are on a unit circle?

Find the missing angle between the two secants to the circle when the two angles at the centre subtended by the arcs created by the intersections of the secants and the circle are 50 and 120 degrees.

This shape comprises four semi-circles. What is the relationship between the area of the shaded region and the area of the circle on AB as diameter?

What fractions can you divide the diagonal of a square into by simple folding?

The diagonal of a square intersects the line joining one of the unused corners to the midpoint of the opposite side. What do you notice about the line segments produced?

A circle has centre O and angle POR = angle QOR. Construct tangents at P and Q meeting at T. Draw a circle with diameter OT. Do P and Q lie inside, or on, or outside this circle?

A picture is made by joining five small quadrilaterals together to make a large quadrilateral. Is it possible to draw a similar picture if all the small quadrilaterals are cyclic?

An equilateral triangle is sitting on top of a square. What is the radius of the circle that circumscribes this shape?

Points A, B and C are the centres of three circles, each one of which touches the other two. Prove that the perimeter of the triangle ABC is equal to the diameter of the largest circle.

ABCD is a square. P is the midpoint of AB and is joined to C. A line from D perpendicular to PC meets the line at the point Q. Prove AQ = AD.

Take any rectangle ABCD such that AB > BC. The point P is on AB and Q is on CD. Show that there is exactly one position of P and Q such that APCQ is a rhombus.

An equilateral triangle is constructed on BC. A line QD is drawn, where Q is the midpoint of AC. Prove that AB // QD.

Can you make sense of these three proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem?

If you know the sizes of the angles marked with coloured dots in this diagram which angles can you find by calculation?

Clearly if a, b and c are the lengths of the sides of an equilateral triangle then a^2 + b^2 + c^2 = ab + bc + ca. Is the converse true?

Prove that, given any three parallel lines, an equilateral triangle always exists with one vertex on each of the three lines.

Three points A, B and C lie in this order on a line, and P is any point in the plane. Use the Cosine Rule to prove the following statement.

Can you make sense of the three methods to work out the area of the kite in the square?

Prove that the internal angle bisectors of a triangle will never be perpendicular to each other.

Prove Pythagoras' Theorem using enlargements and scale factors.

Prove that the shaded area of the semicircle is equal to the area of the inner circle.

The diagram shows a regular pentagon with sides of unit length. Find all the angles in the diagram. Prove that the quadrilateral shown in red is a rhombus.

Is the mean of the squares of two numbers greater than, or less than, the square of their means?

A huge wheel is rolling past your window. What do you see?

It is impossible to trisect an angle using only ruler and compasses but it can be done using a carpenter's square.

What does logic mean to us and is that different to mathematical logic? We will explore these questions in this article.

Here are some examples of 'cons', and see if you can figure out where the trick is.

Imagine two identical cylindrical pipes meeting at right angles and think about the shape of the space which belongs to both pipes. Early Chinese mathematicians call this shape the mouhefanggai.

Four jewellers share their stock. Can you work out the relative values of their gems?

This article discusses how every Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) can be illustrated by a square and an L shape within another square. You are invited to find some triples for yourself.

Construct two equilateral triangles on a straight line. There are two lengths that look the same - can you prove it?

There are 12 identical looking coins, one of which is a fake. The counterfeit coin is of a different weight to the rest. What is the minimum number of weighings needed to locate the fake coin?

What is the largest number of intersection points that a triangle and a quadrilateral can have?

When is it impossible to make number sandwiches?

Draw some quadrilaterals on a 9-point circle and work out the angles. Is there a theorem?

Whenever two chameleons of different colours meet they change colour to the third colour. Describe the shortest sequence of meetings in which all the chameleons change to green if you start with 12. . . .

L triominoes can fit together to make larger versions of themselves. Is every size possible to make in this way?

Can you see how this picture illustrates the formula for the sum of the first six cube numbers?

The picture illustrates the sum 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = (4 x 5)/2. Prove the general formula for the sum of the first n natural numbers and the formula for the sum of the cubes of the first n natural. . . .

Keep constructing triangles in the incircle of the previous triangle. What happens?

If you can copy a network without lifting your pen off the paper and without drawing any line twice, then it is traversable. Decide which of these diagrams are traversable.