This article for teachers describes how modelling number properties involving multiplication using an array of objects not only allows children to represent their thinking with concrete materials,. . . .

Imagine a pyramid which is built in square layers of small cubes. If we number the cubes from the top, starting with 1, can you picture which cubes are directly below this first cube?

Can you complete this jigsaw of the multiplication square?

Can you see why 2 by 2 could be 5? Can you predict what 2 by 10 will be?

Find the smallest whole number which, when mutiplied by 7, gives a product consisting entirely of ones.

Can you order the digits from 1-3 to make a number which is divisible by 3 so when the last digit is removed it becomes a 2-figure number divisible by 2, and so on?

Can you work out the arrangement of the digits in the square so that the given products are correct? The numbers 1 - 9 may be used once and once only.

A game that tests your understanding of remainders.

Suppose we allow ourselves to use three numbers less than 10 and multiply them together. How many different products can you find? How do you know you've got them all?

Can you fill in this table square? The numbers 2 -12 were used to generate it with just one number used twice.

Given the products of adjacent cells, can you complete this Sudoku?

Which is quicker, counting up to 30 in ones or counting up to 300 in tens? Why?

Zumf makes spectacles for the residents of the planet Zargon, who have either 3 eyes or 4 eyes. How many lenses will Zumf need to make all the different orders for 9 families?

Can you each work out the number on your card? What do you notice? How could you sort the cards?

There are 44 people coming to a dinner party. There are 15 square tables that seat 4 people. Find a way to seat the 44 people using all 15 tables, with no empty places.

48 is called an abundant number because it is less than the sum of its factors (without itself). Can you find some more abundant numbers?

There is a clock-face where the numbers have become all mixed up. Can you find out where all the numbers have got to from these ten statements?

This challenge is a game for two players. Choose two numbers from the grid and multiply or divide, then mark your answer on the number line. Can you get four in a row before your partner?

All the girls would like a puzzle each for Christmas and all the boys would like a book each. Solve the riddle to find out how many puzzles and books Santa left.

Katie had a pack of 20 cards numbered from 1 to 20. She arranged the cards into 6 unequal piles where each pile added to the same total. What was the total and how could this be done?

Find the product of the numbers on the routes from A to B. Which route has the smallest product? Which the largest?

This magic square has operations written in it, to make it into a maze. Start wherever you like, go through every cell and go out a total of 15!

This big box multiplies anything that goes inside it by the same number. If you know the numbers that come out, what multiplication might be going on in the box?

Can you arrange 5 different digits (from 0 - 9) in the cross in the way described?

Choose any 3 digits and make a 6 digit number by repeating the 3 digits in the same order (e.g. 594594). Explain why whatever digits you choose the number will always be divisible by 7, 11 and 13.

What is the lowest number which always leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by each of the numbers from 2 to 10?

Mr McGregor has a magic potting shed. Overnight, the number of plants in it doubles. He'd like to put the same number of plants in each of three gardens, planting one garden each day. Can he do it?

Use your logical-thinking skills to deduce how much Dan's crisps and ice-cream cost altogether.

Using the statements, can you work out how many of each type of rabbit there are in these pens?

Start by putting one million (1 000 000) into the display of your calculator. Can you reduce this to 7 using just the 7 key and add, subtract, multiply, divide and equals as many times as you like?

This multiplication uses each of the digits 0 - 9 once and once only. Using the information given, can you replace the stars in the calculation with figures?

Can you see how these factor-multiple chains work? Find the chain which contains the smallest possible numbers. How about the largest possible numbers?

Here is a chance to play a version of the classic Countdown Game.

Work out Tom's number from the answers he gives his friend. He will only answer 'yes' or 'no'.

56 406 is the product of two consecutive numbers. What are these two numbers?

This problem is based on the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Investigate the different numbers of people and rats there could have been if you know how many legs there are altogether!

What do you notice about the date 03.06.09? Or 08.01.09? This challenge invites you to investigate some interesting dates yourself.

If you take a three by three square on a 1-10 addition square and multiply the diagonally opposite numbers together, what is the difference between these products. Why?

Can you find which shapes you need to put into the grid to make the totals at the end of each row and the bottom of each column?

There were chews for 2p, mini eggs for 3p, Chocko bars for 5p and lollypops for 7p in the sweet shop. What could each of the children buy with their money?

A group of children are using measuring cylinders but they lose the labels. Can you help relabel them?

Cherri, Saxon, Mel and Paul are friends. They are all different ages. Can you find out the age of each friend using the information?

A 3 digit number is multiplied by a 2 digit number and the calculation is written out as shown with a digit in place of each of the *'s. Complete the whole multiplication sum.

In the multiplication calculation, some of the digits have been replaced by letters and others by asterisks. Can you reconstruct the original multiplication?

Four Go game for an adult and child. Will you be the first to have four numbers in a row on the number line?

Can you work out some different ways to balance this equation?

Have a go at balancing this equation. Can you find different ways of doing it?

Can you complete this calculation by filling in the missing numbers? In how many different ways can you do it?