Resources tagged with: 2D shapes and their properties

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Broad Topics > Angles, Polygons, and Geometrical Proof > 2D shapes and their properties

Roaming Rhombus

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

We have four rods of equal lengths hinged at their endpoints to form a rhombus ABCD. Keeping AB fixed we allow CD to take all possible positions in the plane. What is the locus (or path) of the point. . . .

Tied Up

Age 14 to 16 Short Challenge Level:

How much of the field can the animals graze?

Arclets Explained

Age 11 to 16

This article gives an wonderful insight into students working on the Arclets problem that first appeared in the Sept 2002 edition of the NRICH website.

Track Design

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Where should runners start the 200m race so that they have all run the same distance by the finish?

Semi-square

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

What is the ratio of the area of a square inscribed in a semicircle to the area of the square inscribed in the entire circle?

Circumspection

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

M is any point on the line AB. Squares of side length AM and MB are constructed and their circumcircles intersect at P (and M). Prove that the lines AD and BE produced pass through P.

Lawnmower

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

A kite shaped lawn consists of an equilateral triangle ABC of side 130 feet and an isosceles triangle BCD in which BD and CD are of length 169 feet. A gardener has a motor mower which cuts strips of. . . .

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Given a square ABCD of sides 10 cm, and using the corners as centres, construct four quadrants with radius 10 cm each inside the square. The four arcs intersect at P, Q, R and S. Find the. . . .

Pentagonal

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Can you prove that the sum of the distances of any point inside a square from its sides is always equal (half the perimeter)? Can you prove it to be true for a rectangle or a hexagon?

Efficient Packing

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

How efficiently can you pack together disks?

First Forward Into Logo 4: Circles

Age 7 to 16 Challenge Level:

Learn how to draw circles using Logo. Wait a minute! Are they really circles? If not what are they?

LOGO Challenge 10 - Circles

Age 11 to 16 Challenge Level:

In LOGO circles can be described in terms of polygons with an infinite (in this case large number) of sides - investigate this definition further.

Circle Packing

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Equal circles can be arranged so that each circle touches four or six others. What percentage of the plane is covered by circles in each packing pattern? ...

Like a Circle in a Spiral

Age 7 to 16 Challenge Level:

A cheap and simple toy with lots of mathematics. Can you interpret the images that are produced? Can you predict the pattern that will be produced using different wheels?

Salinon

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

This shape comprises four semi-circles. What is the relationship between the area of the shaded region and the area of the circle on AB as diameter?

LOGO Challenge - Circles as Animals

Age 11 to 16 Challenge Level:

See if you can anticipate successive 'generations' of the two animals shown here.

Fitting In

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

The largest square which fits into a circle is ABCD and EFGH is a square with G and H on the line CD and E and F on the circumference of the circle. Show that AB = 5EF. Similarly the largest. . . .

The Medieval Octagon

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Medieval stonemasons used a method to construct octagons using ruler and compasses... Is the octagon regular? Proof please.

Crescents and Triangles

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Can you find a relationship between the area of the crescents and the area of the triangle?

LOGO Challenge 11 - More on Circles

Age 11 to 16 Challenge Level:

Thinking of circles as polygons with an infinite number of sides - but how does this help us with our understanding of the circumference of circle as pi x d? This challenge investigates. . . .

LOGO Challenge 12 - Concentric Circles

Age 11 to 16 Challenge Level:

Can you reproduce the design comprising a series of concentric circles? Test your understanding of the realtionship betwwn the circumference and diameter of a circle.

Tricircle

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

The centre of the larger circle is at the midpoint of one side of an equilateral triangle and the circle touches the other two sides of the triangle. A smaller circle touches the larger circle and. . . .

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

The sides of a triangle are 25, 39 and 40 units of length. Find the diameter of the circumscribed circle.

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Investigate the properties of quadrilaterals which can be drawn with a circle just touching each side and another circle just touching each vertex.

LOGO Challenge 6 - Triangles and Stars

Age 11 to 16 Challenge Level:

Recreating the designs in this challenge requires you to break a problem down into manageable chunks and use the relationships between triangles and hexagons. An exercise in detail and elegance.

Holly

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

The ten arcs forming the edges of the "holly leaf" are all arcs of circles of radius 1 cm. Find the length of the perimeter of the holly leaf and the area of its surface.

Three Four Five

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Two semi-circles (each of radius 1/2) touch each other, and a semi-circle of radius 1 touches both of them. Find the radius of the circle which touches all three semi-circles.

Some(?) of the Parts

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

A circle touches the lines OA, OB and AB where OA and OB are perpendicular. Show that the diameter of the circle is equal to the perimeter of the triangle

Semi-detached

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

A square of area 40 square cms is inscribed in a semicircle. Find the area of the square that could be inscribed in a circle of the same radius.

From All Corners

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Straight lines are drawn from each corner of a square to the mid points of the opposite sides. Express the area of the octagon that is formed at the centre as a fraction of the area of the square.

What's Inside/outside/under the Box?

Age 7 to 14

This article describes investigations that offer opportunities for children to think differently, and pose their own questions, about shapes.

What Shape?

Age 7 to 14 Challenge Level:

This task develops spatial reasoning skills. By framing and asking questions a member of the team has to find out what mathematical object they have chosen.

Playground Snapshot

Age 7 to 14 Challenge Level:

The image in this problem is part of a piece of equipment found in the playground of a school. How would you describe it to someone over the phone?

Curvy Areas

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Have a go at creating these images based on circles. What do you notice about the areas of the different sections?

What Shape for Two

Age 7 to 14 Challenge Level:

'What Shape?' activity for adult and child. Can you ask good questions so you can work out which shape your partner has chosen?

Hex

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Explain how the thirteen pieces making up the regular hexagon shown in the diagram can be re-assembled to form three smaller regular hexagons congruent to each other.

From One Shape to Another

Age 7 to 14

Read about David Hilbert who proved that any polygon could be cut up into a certain number of pieces that could be put back together to form any other polygon of equal area.

Squaring the Circle and Circling the Square

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

If you continue the pattern, can you predict what each of the following areas will be? Try to explain your prediction.

Blue and White

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Identical squares of side one unit contain some circles shaded blue. In which of the four examples is the shaded area greatest?

Squaring the Circle

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Bluey-green, white and transparent squares with a few odd bits of shapes around the perimeter. But, how many squares are there of each type in the complete circle? Study the picture and make. . . .

Rolling Coins

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

A blue coin rolls round two yellow coins which touch. The coins are the same size. How many revolutions does the blue coin make when it rolls all the way round the yellow coins? Investigate for a. . . .

Dividing the Field

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

A farmer has a field which is the shape of a trapezium as illustrated below. To increase his profits he wishes to grow two different crops. To do this he would like to divide the field into two. . . .

Square Areas

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Can you work out the area of the inner square and give an explanation of how you did it?

Not So Little X

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Two circles are enclosed by a rectangle 12 units by x units. The distance between the centres of the two circles is x/3 units. How big is x?

Floored

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

A floor is covered by a tessellation of equilateral triangles, each having three equal arcs inside it. What proportion of the area of the tessellation is shaded?

Lying and Cheating

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Follow the instructions and you can take a rectangle, cut it into 4 pieces, discard two small triangles, put together the remaining two pieces and end up with a rectangle the same size. Try it!

2001 Spatial Oddity

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

With one cut a piece of card 16 cm by 9 cm can be made into two pieces which can be rearranged to form a square 12 cm by 12 cm. Explain how this can be done.

Pent

Age 14 to 18 Challenge Level:

The diagram shows a regular pentagon with sides of unit length. Find all the angles in the diagram. Prove that the quadrilateral shown in red is a rhombus.

Rhombus in Rectangle

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Take any rectangle ABCD such that AB > BC. The point P is on AB and Q is on CD. Show that there is exactly one position of P and Q such that APCQ is a rhombus.

LOGO Challenge 2 - Diamonds Are Forever

Age 7 to 16 Challenge Level:

The challenge is to produce elegant solutions. Elegance here implies simplicity. The focus is on rhombi, in particular those formed by jointing two equilateral triangles along an edge.