When number pyramids have a sequence on the bottom layer, some interesting patterns emerge...

We can show that (x + 1)² = x² + 2x + 1 by considering the area of an (x + 1) by (x + 1) square. Show in a similar way that (x + 2)² = x² + 4x + 4

Try entering different sets of numbers in the number pyramids. How does the total at the top change?

These formulae are often quoted, but rarely proved. In this article, we derive the formulae for the volumes of a square-based pyramid and a cone, using relatively simple mathematical concepts.

Triangular numbers can be represented by a triangular array of squares. What do you notice about the sum of identical triangle numbers?

What are the areas of these triangles? What do you notice? Can you generalise to other "families" of triangles?

The number of plants in Mr McGregor's magic potting shed increases overnight. He'd like to put the same number of plants in each of his gardens, planting one garden each day. How can he do it?

It's easy to work out the areas of most squares that we meet, but what if they were tilted?

A game for 2 players that can be played online. Players take it in turns to select a word from the 9 words given. The aim is to select all the occurrences of the same letter.

Euler discussed whether or not it was possible to stroll around Koenigsberg crossing each of its seven bridges exactly once. Experiment with different numbers of islands and bridges.

Slide the pieces to move Khun Phaen past all the guards into the position on the right from which he can escape to freedom.

A and B are two interlocking cogwheels having p teeth and q teeth respectively. One tooth on B is painted red. Find the values of p and q for which the red tooth on B contacts every gap on the. . . .

Can you make a right-angled triangle on this peg-board by joining up three points round the edge?

A tilted square is a square with no horizontal sides. Can you devise a general instruction for the construction of a square when you are given just one of its sides?

The opposite vertices of a square have coordinates (a,b) and (c,d). What are the coordinates of the other vertices?

A game for two people, or play online. Given a target number, say 23, and a range of numbers to choose from, say 1-4, players take it in turns to add to the running total to hit their target.

A game for 2 players. Can be played online. One player has 1 red counter, the other has 4 blue. The red counter needs to reach the other side, and the blue needs to trap the red.

Here is a solitaire type environment for you to experiment with. Which targets can you reach?

Six balls of various colours are randomly shaken into a trianglular arrangement. What is the probability of having at least one red in the corner?

Can you explain the strategy for winning this game with any target?

Do you know how to find the area of a triangle? You can count the squares. What happens if we turn the triangle on end? Press the button and see. Try counting the number of units in the triangle now. . . .

A right-angled isosceles triangle is rotated about the centre point of a square. What can you say about the area of the part of the square covered by the triangle as it rotates?

Can you find a relationship between the number of dots on the circle and the number of steps that will ensure that all points are hit?

7 balls are shaken in a container. You win if the two blue balls touch. What is the probability of winning?

You can move the 4 pieces of the jigsaw and fit them into both outlines. Explain what has happened to the missing one unit of area.

This rectangle is cut into five pieces which fit exactly into a triangular outline and also into a square outline where the triangle, the rectangle and the square have equal areas.

Semi-regular tessellations combine two or more different regular polygons to fill the plane. Can you find all the semi-regular tessellations?

A circle rolls around the outside edge of a square so that its circumference always touches the edge of the square. Can you describe the locus of the centre of the circle?

Given the nets of 4 cubes with the faces coloured in 4 colours, build a tower so that on each vertical wall no colour is repeated, that is all 4 colours appear.

A red square and a blue square overlap so that the corner of the red square rests on the centre of the blue square. Show that, whatever the orientation of the red square, it covers a quarter of the. . . .

Use the interactivity to listen to the bells ringing a pattern. Now it's your turn! Play one of the bells yourself. How do you know when it is your turn to ring?

To avoid losing think of another very well known game where the patterns of play are similar.

Use the interactivity to play two of the bells in a pattern. How do you know when it is your turn to ring, and how do you know which bell to ring?

First Connect Three game for an adult and child. Use the dice numbers and either addition or subtraction to get three numbers in a straight line.

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

Start with any number of counters in any number of piles. 2 players take it in turns to remove any number of counters from a single pile. The winner is the player to take the last counter.

in how many ways can you place the numbers 1, 2, 3 … 9 in the nine regions of the Olympic Emblem (5 overlapping circles) so that the amount in each ring is the same?

Two circles of equal radius touch at P. One circle is fixed whilst the other moves, rolling without slipping, all the way round. How many times does the moving coin revolve before returning to P?

What is the relationship between the angle at the centre and the angles at the circumference, for angles which stand on the same arc? Can you prove it?

Find all the ways of placing the numbers 1 to 9 on a W shape, with 3 numbers on each leg, so that each set of 3 numbers has the same total.

On the 3D grid a strange (and deadly) animal is lurking. Using the tracking system can you locate this creature as quickly as possible?

Is this a fair game? How many ways are there of creating a fair game by adding odd and even numbers?

There are nine teddies in Teddy Town - three red, three blue and three yellow. There are also nine houses, three of each colour. Can you put them on the map of Teddy Town according to the rules?

Show how this pentagonal tile can be used to tile the plane and describe the transformations which map this pentagon to its images in the tiling.

Meg and Mo need to hang their marbles so that they balance. Use the interactivity to experiment and find out what they need to do.

Can you beat Piggy in this simple dice game? Can you figure out Piggy's strategy, and is there a better one?

A metal puzzle which led to some mathematical questions.

This set of resources for teachers offers interactive environments to support work on loci at Key Stage 4.