# Number and Calculation

These articles will support primary teachers as you develop children's understanding of number and calculation.

To see all the articles we publish for primary teachers, please see our CPD Articles for the Classroom.

### The Value of Two

##### Age 3 to 7

Ruth Trundley outlines her doctoral research and concludes that development of an understanding of cardinality is a crucial element of counting that can be overlooked.

### Developing Number Through Tidying Up

##### Age 3 to 7

This article describes how one nursery setting focused on tidying up time as a context in which to explicitly target the development of number and calculation skills.

### A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five Year Olds?

##### Age 3 to 7

This article, written by Dr. Sue Gifford, evaluates the Early Learning Numbers Goal in England, in the light of research.

### Subitising

##### Age 3 to 7

In this article for EY practitioners, Dr Sue Gifford outlines what we mean by subitising and how we can teach it.

### Getting the Balance Right

##### Age 3 to 11

In this article for primary teachers, Ems shares some common misconceptions surrounding the equals sign, and suggests ways to help learners develop their understanding.

### Early Number Sense

##### Age 3 to 11

This article explores the basic foundations of number sense and outlines relevant research in this area.

### Place Value: the Ten-ness of Ten

##### Age 3 to 11

This article develops the idea of 'ten-ness' as an important element of place value.

### How Can I Support the Development of Early Number Sense and Place Value?

##### Age 3 to 11

This article for primary teachers expands on the key ideas which underpin early number sense and place value, and suggests activities to support learners as they get to grips with these ideas.

### Place Value as a Building Block for Developing Fluency in the Calculation Process

##### Age 5 to 11

This article for primary teachers encourages exploration of two fundamental ideas, exchange and 'unitising', which will help children become more fluent when calculating.

### Playing with Factors and Multiples

##### Age 5 to 11

This article for primary teachers outlines why developing an intuitive 'feel' for numbers matters, and how our activities focusing on factors and multiples can help.

### Going Deeper: Achieving Greater Depth in the Primary Classroom

##### Age 5 to 11

In this article for Primary teachers, we share key findings from a project with schools in Tower Hamlets, which focused on teaching 'at greater depth' using whole-class resources.

### Arrays, Multiplication and Division

##### Age 5 to 11

This article explores the use of the array to support children's thinking around multiplication and division.

### Developing Number Fluency - What, Why and How

##### Age 5 to 11

In this article for primary teachers, Lynne McClure outlines what is meant by fluency in the context of number and explains how our selection of NRICH tasks can help.

### Let's Get Flexible!

##### Age 5 to 11

In this article for primary teachers, Ems outlines how we can encourage learners to be flexible in their approach to calculation, and why this is crucial.

### Numbers Numbers Everywhere!

##### Age 5 to 11

Bernard Bagnall recommends some primary school problems which use numbers from the environment around us, from clocks to house numbers.

### Pattern Sniffing

##### Age 5 to 11

This article for primary teachers outlines how we can encourage children to create, identify, extend and explain number patterns and why being able to do so is useful.

### What's X Got to Do with It?

##### Age 5 to 16

By following through the threads of algebraic thinking discussed in this article, we can ensure that children's mathematical experiences follow a continuous progression.

### Digital Roots

##### Age 7 to 14

In this article for teachers, Bernard Bagnall describes how to find digital roots and suggests that they can be worth exploring when confronted by a sequence of numbers.