Number and Calculation

These articles will support primary teachers as you develop children's understanding of number and calculation.

To see all the articles we publish for primary teachers, please see our CPD Articles for the Classroom.

A Good Foundation for Number Learning for Five Year Olds?

Age 3 to 7

This article, written by Dr. Sue Gifford, evaluates the Early Learning Numbers Goal in England, in the light of research.

Early Number Sense

Age 3 to 11

This article explores the basic foundations of number sense and outlines relevant research in this area.

Place Value: the Ten-ness of Ten

Age 3 to 11

This article develops the idea of 'ten-ness' as an important element of place value.

How Can I Support the Development of Early Number Sense and Place Value?

Age 3 to 11

This article for primary teachers expands on the key ideas which underpin early number sense and place value, and suggests activities to support learners as they get to grips with these ideas.

Models in Mind

Age 3 to 14

This article looks at how models support mathematical thinking about numbers and the number system

Numbers Numbers Everywhere!

Age 5 to 11

Bernard Bagnall recommends some primary school problems which use numbers from the environment around us, from clocks to house numbers.

Place Value as a Building Block for Developing Fluency in the Calculation Process

Age 5 to 11

This article for primary teachers encourages exploration of two fundamental ideas, exchange and 'unitising', which will help children become more fluent when calculating.

Arrays, Multiplication and Division

Age 5 to 11

This article explores the use of the array to support children's thinking around multiplication and division.

Pattern Sniffing

Age 5 to 11

This article for primary teachers outlines how we can encourage children to create, identify, extend and explain number patterns and why being able to do so is useful.

Developing Number Fluency - What, Why and How

Age 5 to 11

In this article for primary teachers, Lynne McClure outlines what is meant by fluency in the context of number and explains how our selection of NRICH tasks can help.

What's X Got to Do with It?

Age 5 to 16

By following through the threads of algebraic thinking discussed in this article, we can ensure that children's mathematical experiences follow a continuous progression.

Digital Roots

Age 7 to 14

In this article for teachers, Bernard Bagnall describes how to find digital roots and suggests that they can be worth exploring when confronted by a sequence of numbers.