A composite number is one that is neither prime nor 1. Show that 10201 is composite in any base.

Can you convince me of each of the following: If a square number is multiplied by a square number the product is ALWAYS a square number...

32 x 38 = 30 x 40 + 2 x 8; 34 x 36 = 30 x 40 + 4 x 6; 56 x 54 = 50 x 60 + 6 x 4; 73 x 77 = 70 x 80 + 3 x 7 Verify and generalise if possible.

Pick the number of times a week that you eat chocolate. This number must be more than one but less than ten. Multiply this number by 2. Add 5 (for Sunday). Multiply by 50... Can you explain why it. . . .

Write down a three-digit number Change the order of the digits to get a different number Find the difference between the two three digit numbers Follow the rest of the instructions then try. . . .

If a two digit number has its digits reversed and the smaller of the two numbers is subtracted from the larger, prove the difference can never be prime.

Can you explain the surprising results Jo found when she calculated the difference between square numbers?

Think of two whole numbers under 10, and follow the steps. I can work out both your numbers very quickly. How?

Find the five distinct digits N, R, I, C and H in the following nomogram

The Number Jumbler can always work out your chosen symbol. Can you work out how?

Where should you start, if you want to finish back where you started?

How many more miles must the car travel before the numbers on the milometer and the trip meter contain the same digits in the same order?

The letters in the following addition sum represent the digits 1 ... 9. If A=3 and D=2, what number is represented by "CAYLEY"?

By selecting digits for an addition grid, what targets can you make?

Replace the letters with numbers to make the addition work out correctly. R E A D + T H I S = P A G E

Visitors to Earth from the distant planet of Zub-Zorna were amazed when they found out that when the digits in this multiplication were reversed, the answer was the same! Find a way to explain. . . .

Think of a two digit number, reverse the digits, and add the numbers together. Something special happens...

Find the values of the nine letters in the sum: FOOT + BALL = GAME

Consider all two digit numbers (10, 11, . . . ,99). In writing down all these numbers, which digits occur least often, and which occur most often ? What about three digit numbers, four digit numbers. . . .

A three digit number abc is always divisible by 7 when 2a+3b+c is divisible by 7. Why?

Given any 3 digit number you can use the given digits and name another number which is divisible by 37 (e.g. given 628 you say 628371 is divisible by 37 because you know that 6+3 = 2+7 = 8+1 = 9). . . .

How many solutions can you find to this sum? Each of the different letters stands for a different number.

Take any pair of two digit numbers x=ab and y=cd where, without loss of generality, ab > cd . Form two 4 digit numbers r=abcd and s=cdab and calculate: {r^2 - s^2} /{x^2 - y^2}.

Choose any 3 digits and make a 6 digit number by repeating the 3 digits in the same order (e.g. 594594). Explain why whatever digits you choose the number will always be divisible by 7, 11 and 13.

The number 27 is special because it is three times the sum of its digits 27 = 3 (2 + 7). Find some two digit numbers that are SEVEN times the sum of their digits (seven-up numbers)?

A 2-Digit number is squared. When this 2-digit number is reversed and squared, the difference between the squares is also a square. What is the 2-digit number?

115^2 = (110 x 120) + 25, that is 13225 895^2 = (890 x 900) + 25, that is 801025 Can you explain what is happening and generalise?

Each letter represents a different positive digit AHHAAH / JOKE = HA What are the values of each of the letters?

Three people chose this as a favourite problem. It is the sort of problem that needs thinking time - but once the connection is made it gives access to many similar ideas.

Take any four digit number. Move the first digit to the end and move the rest along. Now add your two numbers. Did you get a multiple of 11?

Can you create a Latin Square from multiples of a six digit number?

In this 100 square, look at the green square which contains the numbers 2, 3, 12 and 13. What is the sum of the numbers that are diagonally opposite each other? What do you notice?

What is the sum of all the digits in all the integers from one to one million?

Explore the relationship between simple linear functions and their graphs.

What happens when you add a three digit number to its reverse?

Try out some calculations. Are you surprised by the results?

Think of any three-digit number. Repeat the digits. The 6-digit number that you end up with is divisible by 91. Is this a coincidence?

Can you arrange the digits 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 into three 3-digit numbers such that their total is close to 1500?

There are two forms of counting on Vuvv - Zios count in base 3 and Zepts count in base 7. One day four of these creatures, two Zios and two Zepts, sat on the summit of a hill to count the legs of. . . .

The number 3723(in base 10) is written as 123 in another base. What is that base?

This addition sum uses all ten digits 0, 1, 2...9 exactly once. Find the sum and show that the one you give is the only possibility.

Choose four different digits from 1-9 and put one in each box so that the resulting four two-digit numbers add to a total of 100.

Can you show that 1^99 + 2^99 + 3^99 + 4^99 + 5^99 is divisible by 5?

a) A four digit number (in base 10) aabb is a perfect square. Discuss ways of systematically finding this number. (b) Prove that 11^{10}-1 is divisible by 100.

Choose two digits and arrange them to make two double-digit numbers. Now add your double-digit numbers. Now add your single digit numbers. Divide your double-digit answer by your single-digit answer. . . .

This article, written for teachers, looks at the different kinds of recordings encountered in Primary Mathematics lessons and the importance of not jumping to conclusions!

Watch our videos of multiplication methods that you may not have met before. Can you make sense of them?