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# Fundamental Particles Collection

### The Ultra Particle

### Universal Time, Mass, Length

### Big and Small Numbers in Physics

### Crystal Symmetry

### Lennard Jones Potential

### Striking Gold

### Cobalt Decay

### Scientific Curves

### Escape from Planet Earth

### Earth Orbit

### Operating Machines

### The Real Hydrogen Atom

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It seems like exciting times are ahead for theoretical physicists with the possible discovery of the Higgs boson. Perhaps you have ambitions to follow in the footsteps of Higgs or others like Einstein, Hawking, Green or Witten? Of course, the mathematics involved in the standard model of particle physics, which predicts the Higgs boson is very
tricky, and as for the mathematics involved in string and M theory.... (for a fascinating account of strings, visit whystringtheory.com)

Perhaps you hope in the future to make some wonderful discovery in mathematical physics? Or, perhaps you just want to understand more about the details of the way the universe works?

To assist you on your journeys we have collected together a selection of problems on NRICH related to the physics of fundamental particles. These involve a wide range of mathematical techniques and wonderful physical concepts. We hope that you enjoy them.

Perhaps you hope in the future to make some wonderful discovery in mathematical physics? Or, perhaps you just want to understand more about the details of the way the universe works?

To assist you on your journeys we have collected together a selection of problems on NRICH related to the physics of fundamental particles. These involve a wide range of mathematical techniques and wonderful physical concepts. We hope that you enjoy them.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Explore the energy of this incredibly energetic particle which struck Earth on October 15th 1991

Age 16 to 18

ShortChallenge Level

Can you work out the natural time scale for the universe?

Age 14 to 16

Challenge Level

Work out the numerical values for these physical quantities.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Use vectors and matrices to explore the symmetries of crystals.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Investigate why the Lennard-Jones potential gives a good approximate explanation for the behaviour of atoms at close ranges

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Investigate some of the issues raised by Geiger and Marsden's famous scattering experiment in which they fired alpha particles at a sheet of gold.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Investigate the effects of the half-lifes of the isotopes of cobalt on the mass of a mystery lump of the element.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Can you sketch these difficult curves, which have uses in mathematical modelling?

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

How fast would you have to throw a ball upwards so that it would never land?

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Follow in the steps of Newton and find the path that the earth follows around the sun.

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

What functions can you make using the function machines RECIPROCAL and PRODUCT and the operator machines DIFF and INT?

Age 16 to 18

Challenge Level

Dip your toe into the world of quantum mechanics by looking at the Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atoms