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8 Methods for Three by One

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Rots and Refs

Follow hints using a little coordinate geometry, plane geometry and trig to see how matrices are used to work on transformations of the plane.

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Limiting Probabilities

Given probabilities of taking paths in a graph from each node, use matrix multiplication to find the probability of going from one vertex to another in 2 stages, or 3, or 4 or even 100.

Matrix Meaning

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

This problem involves the algebra of matrices and various geometric concepts associated with vectors and matrices. As you consider each point, make use of geometric or algebraic arguments as appropriate. If there is no definitive answer to a given part, try to give examples of when the question posed is or is not true.

In the five questions below: $R, S$ are rotation matrices; $P, Q$ are reflection matrices; $M,N$ are neither rotations nor reflections. Consider each part in 2D and 3D.

  1. Is it always the case that $M+N = N + M$?
  2. It it always the case that $RS= SR$?
  3. It it always the case that $RP= PR$?
  4. It it always the case that $PQ= QP$?
  5. Is it ever the case that $MN = NM$?

How do the values of the determinants of the various matrices affect the results of these questions?