Challenge Level

$X(r)$ is defined implicitly by the quadratic relationship

$$

r^2X^2-rX-r+1=0

$$

Part 1: Which of the choices $r=1,-1,100$ give real values for $X(r)$?

Part 2: What is the range of values of $r$ for which $X(r)$ takes real values?

What happens when $r=0$?

Part 3: Sketch the overall shape of $X(r)$ against $r$ and find the maximum and minimum values of $X(r)$.

Note: You could numerically find a sensible conjecture for the minimum and maximum values of $X(r)$, but to prove this you will need to use calculus.