You may also like

problem icon

Epidemic Modelling

Use the computer to model an epidemic. Try out public health policies to control the spread of the epidemic, to minimise the number of sick days and deaths.

problem icon

Very Old Man

Is the age of this very old man statistically believable?

problem icon


bioNRICH is the area of the stemNRICH site devoted to the mathematics underlying the study of the biological sciences, designed to help develop the mathematics required to get the most from your study of biology at A-level and university.

Blood Buffers

Age 16 to 18 Challenge Level:

Why do this problem?

This problem provides a meaningful logarithmic challenge leading up to the derivation of the experimentally observable titration curve. It will introduce along the way many fascinating ideas from chemistry and human biology whilst keeping the focus entirely mathematical.

Possible approach

This question is best studied individually. There is a lot of information to process and make sense of.

Key questions

At each stage, how does the science have a clear, precise mathematical meaning?

Possible extension

Students who make it to the end of this question are doing very well. They might like to pursue the ideas raised in undergraduate science books.

Possible support

You might try and get started using the pH formula with the problem Temperature pH