Bloom's Taxonomy

Age 5 to 16
Article by Jennifer Piggott

Published 2011 Revised 2017

Bloom's Taxonomy is a hierarchy of skills that reflects growing complexity and ability to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS).


Competence Skills Demonstrated
  • observation and recall of information
  • knowledge of dates, events, places
  • knowledge of major ideas
  • mastery of subject matter

Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.
  • understanding information
  • grasp meaning
  • translate knowledge into new context
  • interpret facts, compare, contrast
  • order, group, infer causes
  • predict consequences

Question Cues: summarise, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend
  • use information
  • use methods, concepts, theories in new situations
  • solve problems using required skills or knowledge

Question Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover
  • seeing pattern
  • organisation of parts
  • recognition of hidden meanings
  • identification of components

Question Cues: analyse, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer
  • compare and discriminate between ideas
  • assess values of theories, presentations
  • make choices based on reasoned argument
  • verify value of evidence
  • recognise subjectivity

Question Cues: assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarise
  • use old ideas to create new ones
  • generalise from given facts
  • relate knowledge from several areas
  • predict, draw conclusions

Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if...?, compose, formulate. prepare, generalise, rewrite

Adapted from: Bloom, B.S. (Ed.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I, cognitive domain. New York ; Toronto: Longmans, Green.

This sheet combines the image and the contents of the table above.