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Pythagoras on a Sphere

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

You only need elementary trigonometry and scalar products

Given any right-angled triangle $\Delta ABC$ on a sphere of unit radius, right angled at $A$, and with lengths of sides $a, b$ and $c$, then Pythagoras' Theorem in Spherical Geometry is $$\cos a = \cos b \cos c.$$ Prove this result.

Find a triangle containing three right angles on the surface of a sphere of unit radius. What are the lengths of the sides of your triangle?

Use the Pythagoras' Theorem result above to prove that all spherical triangles with three right angles on the unit sphere are congruent to the one you found.
To find out more about Spherical Geometry read the article 'When the Angles of a Triangle Don't Add Up to 180 degrees.