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Triangles Within Squares

Age 14 to 16 Challenge Level:

Well explained by Tom, from Cottenham Village College

The answer I got for $T_n$ is: $8T_n+1=(2n+1)^2$

The $2n+1$ part is because the diagram looks like this for $T_3$
square arrangement
$2T_n$ form a rectangle $n$ by $n+1$

The four rectangles rotate around the centre and together make a square of side $n+(n+1)$

So we get the equation $8T_n+1=(2n+1)^2$