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Tomas of Malmsbury School, Mark of The
British School of Manilla and Herbert of Sha Tin College, Hong Kong
sent good solutions to this problem. Well done all of
you.
$P$ is a point on the circumference of a circle radius $r$
which touches another circle radius $2r$ on the inside. The smaller
circle rolls, without slipping, around the inner circumference of
the larger circle.
The point $P$ is a fixed point on the smaller circle which
moves as the small circle moves. The point $P_o$ is the position of
$P$ when $P$ is at the point of contact between the two circles.
Consider the general position where the point of contact is the
point $C$ but here we do not assume that $P_1$ is the position of
the point $P$.
