Skip to main content
### Number and algebra

### Geometry and measure

### Probability and statistics

### Working mathematically

### Advanced mathematics

### For younger learners

# Electric Kettle

## You may also like

### Intersections

### Perpendicular Lines

Or search by topic

Age 14 to 16

Challenge Level

The diagram shows a simple circuit: the cell provides energy, *V* volts, which causes a current, *I* amps, to flow around the circuit. There is also a resistance, *R* ohms.

This circuit provides a simple model for what happens in an electric kettle: a resistance converts electrical energy into heat energy by impeding the flow of electrons around the circuit.

The table shows data collected from a circuit like this.

Resistance (ohms) |
Temperature (degrees Celsius) |

5 | 44.9 |

6 | 50 |

7 | 55.1 |

8 | 59.9 |

9 | 65 |

10 | 70.1 |

- Draw a graph of this data, with the resistance on the horizontal axis, putting a straight line through the points.
- Find the gradient of the line.
- Find the equation of the line.

Once you have found the equation, discuss these questions:

- What resistance would you need to heat water to 100 C °?
- What would the temperature be if the resistance was zero?
- Do you think that in practice, any circuit can have zero resistance?

Change one equation in this pair of simultaneous equations very slightly and there is a big change in the solution. Why?

Position the lines so that they are perpendicular to each other. What can you say about the equations of perpendicular lines?