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# chemNRICH

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### A Method of Defining Coefficients in the Equations of Chemical Reactions

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Age 14 to 18

Challenge Level

stemNRICH : Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics enriched |
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Welcome to **chemNRICH**: the chemistry section of stemNRICH Advanced. This contains mathematical activities designed to complement and enhance the study of chemistry, particularly for students aged 16-19.

Area of chemical maths | Style | Question | Description |
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Molecular masses | Explore the distribution of molecular masses for various hydrocarbons. | ||

Investigate the molecular masses in this sequence of molecules and deduce which molecule has been analysed in the mass spectrometer. | |||

From the atomic masses recorded in a mass spectrometry analysis can you deduce the possible form of these compounds? | |||

Dilutions | Dilution Series Calculator | In this interactive tool a bacterial solution is diluted in four stages. Can you work out what the final concentration will be? Practise with new questions until you understand the process. | |

Investigating the Dilution Series | Follow on from the previous question by choosing the dilutions in each of four stages to try to match certain final targets. | ||

Exact Dilutions | Save on the washing up! Using just three beakers can you create dilutions of certain concentrations? | ||

Logarithms and pH | pH Temperature | From a table of data for the dissociation constant of water at various temperatures, work out how hot water must be to have different pH values. | |

Mixing pH | Use the pH formula to calculate the pH and concentrations of dilutions. | ||

Extreme Dissociation | Take the pH formula to its theoretical limits in these extreme calculations. | ||

Blood Buffers | In this extended question explore how blood buffers keep the pH levels balanced in the human body. | ||

Atoms and particles | See the Atoms and Particles problems on the physNRICH pages | ||

Reaction kinetics | Catalyse That | Explore rates of a temperature dependent reaction | |

Reaction Types | How can algebra be used to represent different reaction types? What does the equation tell us about the behaviour of the reaction? | ||

Gases | See also the Gas Laws problems on the physNRICH pages |
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Which reactions cause an increase in volume, and which a decrease? | |||

Does each of these scenarios allow you fully to deduce the required facts about the reactants? | |||

Diamonds Aren't Forever | Investigate the ideal gas laws in the context of diamond gas. | ||

Bonds, geometry and crystals | Coordinated Crystals | Practise your visualisation skills regarding 3D crystal structures. | |

Bond Angles | Put your vectors to the test with this exploration of the geometry of tetrahedral molecules and ammonia. | ||

Stereoisomers | Which of these molecules can be rotated on to each other, and which are stereoisomers? | ||

Enthalpy | Which Salt? | Work out why common salt is not NaCl2 by analysing the Born-Haber cycle. | |

Moles and molarity | What does the empirical formula of this mixture of iron oxides tell you about its constituents? | ||

Advanced mathematics in chemistry | CSI: Chemical Scene Investigation | Give your general quantitative chemistry and problem solving skills a workout in this entertaining extended investigation. | |

The Real Hydrogen Atom | Dip your toe into the world of quantum mechanics by looking at the Schrodinger equation for hydrogen atoms. | ||

Clear as Crystal | Unearth the beautiful mathematics of symmetry whilst investigating the properties of crystal lattices. | ||

Articles | Inspect Your Gadgets | Look at the tools and mathematics which underly quantitative chemistry. | |

Reaction Rates! | Find out how rates of reactions and equations go together. |

A simple method of defining the coefficients in the equations of chemical reactions with the help of a system of linear algebraic equations.

A brief outline of the mathematical issues faced by chemistry students.

Explore the possibilities for reaction rates versus concentrations with this non-linear differential equation