Rectangle PQRS has X and Y on the edges. Triangles PQY, YRX and XSP
have equal areas. Prove X and Y divide the sides of PQRS in the
Straight lines are drawn from each corner of a square to the mid
points of the opposite sides. Express the area of the octagon that
is formed at the centre as a fraction of the area of the square.
Find the ratio of the outer shaded area to the inner area for a six
pointed star and an eight pointed star.
In this problem the scale now has 12 points : shortest to
double, with ten lengths in between.
We are going to look for a closed and complete scale. The
question is this : If we work in fractions, where 1 is the lowest
note and 1/2 is the highest, what would the other notes need to be
so that intervals between any pair of notes were fractions from
elsewhere in the set? For example if the set included the fractions
2/3, 3/4 and 8/9, then the lengths 8/9 and 3/4 themselves make an
interval of 2/3 , and 2/3 is in the set.
Here's one way people tried to find a suitable set : Using an
understanding that 1:2 and 2:3 were good ratios, they started with
a length and then kept reducing it to 2/3 of itself. Each time that
took the length under 1/2 they doubled it to get back within range,
while still in theory connecting to an agreeable note.
After shifting down twelve times, which required seven
doublings, they were almost back at the start note - but not
So in fact they'd failed to get a closed set. So the question
How much were they off by?
This discrepancy is called "Pythagoras Comma".
So we've got a 12 point scale of sorts but it lacks the beauty
of forming a closed and complete set within which notes relate to
each other as a sequence of 1:2 and 2:3 shifts.