We can show that (x + 1)² = x² + 2x + 1 by considering the area of an (x + 1) by (x + 1) square. Show in a similar way that (x + 2)² = x² + 4x + 4

This article for teachers describes several games, found on the site, all of which have a related structure that can be used to develop the skills of strategic planning.

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

Triangle numbers can be represented by a triangular array of squares. What do you notice about the sum of identical triangle numbers?

Imagine starting with one yellow cube and covering it all over with a single layer of red cubes, and then covering that cube with a layer of blue cubes. How many red and blue cubes would you need?

What are the areas of these triangles? What do you notice? Can you generalise to other "families" of triangles?

It's easy to work out the areas of most squares that we meet, but what if they were tilted?

Problem solving is at the heart of the NRICH site. All the problems give learners opportunities to learn, develop or use mathematical concepts and skills. Read here for more information.

A game for 2 players. Set out 16 counters in rows of 1,3,5 and 7. Players take turns to remove any number of counters from a row. The player left with the last counter looses.

A game for 2 players with similaritlies to NIM. Place one counter on each spot on the games board. Players take it is turns to remove 1 or 2 adjacent counters. The winner picks up the last counter.

Can you describe this route to infinity? Where will the arrows take you next?

The NRICH team are always looking for new ways to engage teachers and pupils in problem solving. Here we explain the thinking behind maths trails.

Can you work out how to win this game of Nim? Does it matter if you go first or second?

One block is needed to make an up-and-down staircase, with one step up and one step down. How many blocks would be needed to build an up-and-down staircase with 5 steps up and 5 steps down?

Spotting patterns can be an important first step - explaining why it is appropriate to generalise is the next step, and often the most interesting and important.

Many numbers can be expressed as the sum of two or more consecutive integers. For example, 15=7+8 and 10=1+2+3+4. Can you say which numbers can be expressed in this way?

List any 3 numbers. It is always possible to find a subset of adjacent numbers that add up to a multiple of 3. Can you explain why and prove it?

If you can copy a network without lifting your pen off the paper and without drawing any line twice, then it is traversable. Decide which of these diagrams are traversable.

Four bags contain a large number of 1s, 3s, 5s and 7s. Pick any ten numbers from the bags above so that their total is 37.

How could Penny, Tom and Matthew work out how many chocolates there are in different sized boxes?

Watch this video to see how to roll the dice. Now it's your turn! What do you notice about the dice numbers you have recorded?

Nim-7 game for an adult and child. Who will be the one to take the last counter?

Find a route from the outside to the inside of this square, stepping on as many tiles as possible.

Are these statements relating to odd and even numbers always true, sometimes true or never true?

Use the animation to help you work out how many lines are needed to draw mystic roses of different sizes.

Here are two kinds of spirals for you to explore. What do you notice?

Start with any number of counters in any number of piles. 2 players take it in turns to remove any number of counters from a single pile. The winner is the player to take the last counter.

Euler discussed whether or not it was possible to stroll around Koenigsberg crossing each of its seven bridges exactly once. Experiment with different numbers of islands and bridges.

Delight your friends with this cunning trick! Can you explain how it works?

Pick a square within a multiplication square and add the numbers on each diagonal. What do you notice?

Do you notice anything about the solutions when you add and/or subtract consecutive negative numbers?

Try entering different sets of numbers in the number pyramids. How does the total at the top change?

An article for teachers and pupils that encourages you to look at the mathematical properties of similar games.

Three circles have a maximum of six intersections with each other. What is the maximum number of intersections that a hundred circles could have?

The number of plants in Mr McGregor's magic potting shed increases overnight. He'd like to put the same number of plants in each of his gardens, planting one garden each day. How can he do it?

A little bit of algebra explains this 'magic'. Ask a friend to pick 3 consecutive numbers and to tell you a multiple of 3. Then ask them to add the four numbers and multiply by 67, and to tell you. . . .

Can you dissect an equilateral triangle into 6 smaller ones? What number of smaller equilateral triangles is it NOT possible to dissect a larger equilateral triangle into?

You can work out the number someone else is thinking of as follows. Ask a friend to think of any natural number less than 100. Then ask them to tell you the remainders when this number is divided by. . . .

For this challenge, you'll need to play Got It! Can you explain the strategy for winning this game with any target?

What would be the smallest number of moves needed to move a Knight from a chess set from one corner to the opposite corner of a 99 by 99 square board?

When number pyramids have a sequence on the bottom layer, some interesting patterns emerge...

Can you see why 2 by 2 could be 5? Can you predict what 2 by 10 will be?

In this problem we are looking at sets of parallel sticks that cross each other. What is the least number of crossings you can make? And the greatest?

The diagram shows a 5 by 5 geoboard with 25 pins set out in a square array. Squares are made by stretching rubber bands round specific pins. What is the total number of squares that can be made on a. . . .

Take a look at the multiplication square. The first eleven triangle numbers have been identified. Can you see a pattern? Does the pattern continue?

Charlie has made a Magic V. Can you use his example to make some more? And how about Magic Ls, Ns and Ws?

It starts quite simple but great opportunities for number discoveries and patterns!