### Giant Holly Leaf

Find the perimeter and area of a holly leaf that will not lie flat (it has negative curvature with 'circles' having circumference greater than 2πr).

### Contact

A circular plate rolls in contact with the sides of a rectangular tray. How much of its circumference comes into contact with the sides of the tray when it rolls around one circuit?

### Illusion

A security camera, taking pictures each half a second, films a cyclist going by. In the film, the cyclist appears to go forward while the wheels appear to go backwards. Why?

# Rolling Inside

##### Stage: 4 Short Challenge Level:

A circle of radius 1 rolls without slipping round the inside of a square of side length 4. Find an expression involving $\pi$ for the exact number of revolutions the circle makes by the time it returns to its original position.

If you liked this problem, here is an NRICH task which challenges you to use similar mathematical ideas.

This problem is taken from the UKMT Mathematical Challenges.
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