Resources tagged with: Mathematical reasoning & proof

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There are 173 results

Broad Topics > Thinking Mathematically > Mathematical reasoning & proof

Pent

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

The diagram shows a regular pentagon with sides of unit length. Find all the angles in the diagram. Prove that the quadrilateral shown in red is a rhombus.

Rhombus in Rectangle

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Take any rectangle ABCD such that AB > BC. The point P is on AB and Q is on CD. Show that there is exactly one position of P and Q such that APCQ is a rhombus.

Areas and Ratios

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Do you have enough information to work out the area of the shaded quadrilateral?

Towering Trapeziums

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Can you find the areas of the trapezia in this sequence?

Kite in a Square

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Can you make sense of the three methods to work out the area of the kite in the square?

Matter of Scale

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Prove Pythagoras' Theorem using enlargements and scale factors.

Pythagoras Proofs

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Can you make sense of these three proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem?

Napoleon's Hat

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Three equilateral triangles ABC, AYX and XZB are drawn with the point X a moveable point on AB. The points P, Q and R are the centres of the three triangles. What can you say about triangle PQR?

Zig Zag

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Four identical right angled triangles are drawn on the sides of a square. Two face out, two face in. Why do the four vertices marked with dots lie on one line?

Cyclic Quadrilaterals

Age 11 to 16
Challenge Level

Draw some quadrilaterals on a 9-point circle and work out the angles. Is there a theorem?

Parallel Universe

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

An equilateral triangle is constructed on BC. A line QD is drawn, where Q is the midpoint of AC. Prove that AB // QD.

Square Mean

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Is the mean of the squares of two numbers greater than, or less than, the square of their means?

Lens Angle

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Find the missing angle between the two secants to the circle when the two angles at the centre subtended by the arcs created by the intersections of the secants and the circle are 50 and 120 degrees.

Salinon

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

This shape comprises four semi-circles. What is the relationship between the area of the shaded region and the area of the circle on AB as diameter?

No Right Angle Here

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Prove that the internal angle bisectors of a triangle will never be perpendicular to each other.

Gift of Gems

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Four jewellers share their stock. Can you work out the relative values of their gems?

Fitting In

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

The largest square which fits into a circle is ABCD and EFGH is a square with G and H on the line CD and E and F on the circumference of the circle. Show that AB = 5EF. Similarly the largest. . . .

Pythagorean Triples II

Age 11 to 16

This is the second article on right-angled triangles whose edge lengths are whole numbers.

Pythagorean Triples I

Age 11 to 16

The first of two articles on Pythagorean Triples which asks how many right angled triangles can you find with the lengths of each side exactly a whole number measurement. Try it!

Pareq Exists

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Prove that, given any three parallel lines, an equilateral triangle always exists with one vertex on each of the three lines.

Angle Trisection

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

It is impossible to trisect an angle using only ruler and compasses but it can be done using a carpenter's square.

Road Maker 2

Age 16 to 18 Short
Challenge Level

Can you work out where the blue-and-red brick roads end?

The Pillar of Chios

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Semicircles are drawn on the sides of a rectangle. Prove that the sum of the areas of the four crescents is equal to the area of the rectangle.

Pythagorean Golden Means

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Show that the arithmetic mean, geometric mean and harmonic mean of a and b can be the lengths of the sides of a right-angles triangle if and only if a = bx^3, where x is the Golden Ratio.

Same Length

Age 11 to 16
Challenge Level

Construct two equilateral triangles on a straight line. There are two lengths that look the same - can you prove it?

Little and Large

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

A point moves around inside a rectangle. What are the least and the greatest values of the sum of the squares of the distances from the vertices?

Circle Box

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

It is obvious that we can fit four circles of diameter 1 unit in a square of side 2 without overlapping. What is the smallest square into which we can fit 3 circles of diameter 1 unit?

Big, Bigger, Biggest

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Which is the biggest and which the smallest of $2000^{2002}, 2001^{2001} \text{and } 2002^{2000}$?

Iffy Logic

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

Can you rearrange the cards to make a series of correct mathematical statements?

Target Six

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Show that x = 1 is a solution of the equation x^(3/2) - 8x^(-3/2) = 7 and find all other solutions.

Picturing Pythagorean Triples

Age 14 to 18

This article discusses how every Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) can be illustrated by a square and an L shape within another square. You are invited to find some triples for yourself.

Power Quady

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Find all real solutions of the equation (x^2-7x+11)^(x^2-11x+30) = 1.

Fractional Calculus III

Age 16 to 18

Fractional calculus is a generalisation of ordinary calculus where you can differentiate n times when n is not a whole number.

Round and Round

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Prove that the shaded area of the semicircle is equal to the area of the inner circle.

Where Do We Get Our Feet Wet?

Age 16 to 18

Professor Korner has generously supported school mathematics for more than 30 years and has been a good friend to NRICH since it started.

Plus or Minus

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Make and prove a conjecture about the value of the product of the Fibonacci numbers $F_{n+1}F_{n-1}$.

The Golden Ratio, Fibonacci Numbers and Continued Fractions.

Age 14 to 16

An iterative method for finding the value of the Golden Ratio with explanations of how this involves the ratios of Fibonacci numbers and continued fractions.

Cosines Rule

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Three points A, B and C lie in this order on a line, and P is any point in the plane. Use the Cosine Rule to prove the following statement.

Thousand Words

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Here the diagram says it all. Can you find the diagram?

Golden Eggs

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Find a connection between the shape of a special ellipse and an infinite string of nested square roots.

Quadratic Harmony

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Find all positive integers a and b for which the two equations: x^2-ax+b = 0 and x^2-bx+a = 0 both have positive integer solutions.

Pair Squares

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

The sum of any two of the numbers 2, 34 and 47 is a perfect square. Choose three square numbers and find sets of three integers with this property. Generalise to four integers.

Proof of Pick's Theorem

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Follow the hints and prove Pick's Theorem.

There's a Limit

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

Explore the continued fraction: 2+3/(2+3/(2+3/2+...)) What do you notice when successive terms are taken? What happens to the terms if the fraction goes on indefinitely?

Square Pair Circles

Age 16 to 18
Challenge Level

Investigate the number of points with integer coordinates on circles with centres at the origin for which the square of the radius is a power of 5.

Similarly So

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

ABCD is a square. P is the midpoint of AB and is joined to C. A line from D perpendicular to PC meets the line at the point Q. Prove AQ = AD.

Long Short

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

What can you say about the lengths of the sides of a quadrilateral whose vertices are on a unit circle?

Unit Interval

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

Take any two numbers between 0 and 1. Prove that the sum of the numbers is always less than one plus their product?

Proof: A Brief Historical Survey

Age 14 to 18

If you think that mathematical proof is really clearcut and universal then you should read this article.

Impossible Sandwiches

Age 11 to 18

In this 7-sandwich: 7 1 3 1 6 4 3 5 7 2 4 6 2 5 there are 7 numbers between the 7s, 6 between the 6s etc. The article shows which values of n can make n-sandwiches and which cannot.