Prove that if a is a natural number and the square root of a is rational, then it is a square number (an integer n^2 for some integer n.)
Given that a, b and c are natural numbers show that if sqrt a+sqrt b is rational then it is a natural number. Extend this to 3 variables.
Can you invert the logic to prove these statements?
What is the largest number of intersection points that a triangle and a quadrilateral can have?
Starting with one of the mini-challenges, how many of the other mini-challenges will you invent for yourself?
A serious but easily readable discussion of proof in mathematics with some amusing stories and some interesting examples.
Which of these triangular jigsaws are impossible to finish?
Investigate the number of points with integer coordinates on circles with centres at the origin for which the square of the radius is a power of 5.
In this 7-sandwich: 7 1 3 1 6 4 3 5 7 2 4 6 2 5 there are 7 numbers between the 7s, 6 between the 6s etc. The article shows which values of n can make n-sandwiches and which cannot.
The sums of the squares of three related numbers is also a perfect square - can you explain why?
This article discusses how every Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) can be illustrated by a square and an L shape within another square. You are invited to find some triples for yourself.
An introduction to some beautiful results of Number Theory (a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integer-valued functions)
Can you rearrange the cards to make a series of correct mathematical statements?
Investigate the sequences obtained by starting with any positive 2 digit number (10a+b) and repeatedly using the rule 10a+b maps to 10b-a to get the next number in the sequence.
A connected graph is a graph in which we can get from any vertex to any other by travelling along the edges. A tree is a connected graph with no closed circuits (or loops. Prove that every tree has. . . .
Prove that the internal angle bisectors of a triangle will never be perpendicular to each other.
Show that for natural numbers x and y if x/y > 1 then x/y>(x+1)/(y+1}>1. Hence prove that the product for i=1 to n of [(2i)/(2i-1)] tends to infinity as n tends to infinity.
This is the second article on right-angled triangles whose edge lengths are whole numbers.
When is it impossible to make number sandwiches?
The first of two articles on Pythagorean Triples which asks how many right angled triangles can you find with the lengths of each side exactly a whole number measurement. Try it!
Can you work out where the blue-and-red brick roads end?
Suppose A always beats B and B always beats C, then would you expect A to beat C? Not always! What seems obvious is not always true. Results always need to be proved in mathematics.
A polite number can be written as the sum of two or more consecutive positive integers. Find the consecutive sums giving the polite numbers 544 and 424. What characterizes impolite numbers?
Fractional calculus is a generalisation of ordinary calculus where you can differentiate n times when n is not a whole number.
Show that if you add 1 to the product of four consecutive numbers the answer is ALWAYS a perfect square.
To find the integral of a polynomial, evaluate it at some special points and add multiples of these values.
We continue the discussion given in Euclid's Algorithm I, and here we shall discover when an equation of the form ax+by=c has no solutions, and when it has infinitely many solutions.
In this article we show that every whole number can be written as a continued fraction of the form k/(1+k/(1+k/...)).
Tom writes about expressing numbers as the sums of three squares.
Find all positive integers a and b for which the two equations: x^2-ax+b = 0 and x^2-bx+a = 0 both have positive integer solutions.
Peter Zimmerman, a Year 13 student at Mill Hill County High School in Barnet, London wrote this account of modulus arithmetic.
An account of methods for finding whether or not a number can be written as the sum of two or more squares or as the sum of two or more cubes.
When if ever do you get the right answer if you add two fractions by adding the numerators and adding the denominators?
An article which gives an account of some properties of magic squares.
Prove that you cannot form a Magic W with a total of 12 or less or with a with a total of 18 or more.
Some puzzles requiring no knowledge of knot theory, just a careful inspection of the patterns. A glimpse of the classification of knots and a little about prime knots, crossing numbers and. . . .
Professor Korner has generously supported school mathematics for more than 30 years and has been a good friend to NRICH since it started.
It is impossible to trisect an angle using only ruler and compasses but it can be done using a carpenter's square.
A point moves around inside a rectangle. What are the least and the greatest values of the sum of the squares of the distances from the vertices?
Take a complicated fraction with the product of five quartics top and bottom and reduce this to a whole number. This is a numerical example involving some clever algebra.
This article looks at knight's moves on a chess board and introduces you to the idea of vectors and vector addition.
Follow the hints and prove Pick's Theorem.
Can you discover whether this is a fair game?
ABCD is a square. P is the midpoint of AB and is joined to C. A line from D perpendicular to PC meets the line at the point Q. Prove AQ = AD.
Some diagrammatic 'proofs' of algebraic identities and inequalities.
You have twelve weights, one of which is different from the rest. Using just 3 weighings, can you identify which weight is the odd one out, and whether it is heavier or lighter than the rest?
By proving these particular identities, prove the existence of general cases.
If I tell you two sides of a right-angled triangle, you can easily work out the third. But what if the angle between the two sides is not a right angle?
Construct two equilateral triangles on a straight line. There are two lengths that look the same - can you prove it?
A introduction to how patterns can be deceiving, and what is and is not a proof.