Resources tagged with: Mathematical reasoning & proof

Filter by: Content type:
Age range:
Challenge level:

There are 160 results

Broad Topics > Thinking Mathematically > Mathematical reasoning & proof

Composite Notions

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

A composite number is one that is neither prime nor 1. Show that 10201 is composite in any base.

Why 24?

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Take any prime number greater than 3 , square it and subtract one. Working on the building blocks will help you to explain what is special about your results.

Chocolate Maths

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Pick the number of times a week that you eat chocolate. This number must be more than one but less than ten. Multiply this number by 2. Add 5 (for Sunday). Multiply by 50... Can you explain why it. . . .

Never Prime

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

If a two digit number has its digits reversed and the smaller of the two numbers is subtracted from the larger, prove the difference can never be prime.

Eleven

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Replace each letter with a digit to make this addition correct.

Number Rules - OK

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Can you produce convincing arguments that a selection of statements about numbers are true?

Tis Unique

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

This addition sum uses all ten digits 0, 1, 2...9 exactly once. Find the sum and show that the one you give is the only possibility.

Adding All Nine

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Make a set of numbers that use all the digits from 1 to 9, once and once only. Add them up. The result is divisible by 9. Add each of the digits in the new number. What is their sum? Now try some. . . .

Aba

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

In the following sum the letters A, B, C, D, E and F stand for six distinct digits. Find all the ways of replacing the letters with digits so that the arithmetic is correct.

DOTS Division

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Take any pair of two digit numbers x=ab and y=cd where, without loss of generality, ab > cd . Form two 4 digit numbers r=abcd and s=cdab and calculate: {r^2 - s^2} /{x^2 - y^2}.

Diophantine N-tuples

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Can you explain why a sequence of operations always gives you perfect squares?

Euler's Squares

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Euler found four whole numbers such that the sum of any two of the numbers is a perfect square...

Gabriel's Problem

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Gabriel multiplied together some numbers and then erased them. Can you figure out where each number was?

More Mathematical Mysteries

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Write down a three-digit number Change the order of the digits to get a different number Find the difference between the two three digit numbers Follow the rest of the instructions then try. . . .

Common Divisor

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Find the largest integer which divides every member of the following sequence: 1^5-1, 2^5-2, 3^5-3, ... n^5-n.

Mod 3

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Prove that if a^2+b^2 is a multiple of 3 then both a and b are multiples of 3.

Our Ages

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

I am exactly n times my daughter's age. In m years I shall be ... How old am I?

A Biggy

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Find the smallest positive integer N such that N/2 is a perfect cube, N/3 is a perfect fifth power and N/5 is a perfect seventh power.

Sixational

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

The nth term of a sequence is given by the formula n^3 + 11n . Find the first four terms of the sequence given by this formula and the first term of the sequence which is bigger than one million. . . .

One O Five

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

You can work out the number someone else is thinking of as follows. Ask a friend to think of any natural number less than 100. Then ask them to tell you the remainders when this number is divided by. . . .

Postage

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

The country Sixtania prints postage stamps with only three values 6 lucres, 10 lucres and 15 lucres (where the currency is in lucres).Which values cannot be made up with combinations of these postage. . . .

Largest Product

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Which set of numbers that add to 10 have the largest product?

Is it Magic or Is it Maths?

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Here are three 'tricks' to amaze your friends. But the really clever trick is explaining to them why these 'tricks' are maths not magic. Like all good magicians, you should practice by trying. . . .

Even So

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Find some triples of whole numbers a, b and c such that a^2 + b^2 + c^2 is a multiple of 4. Is it necessarily the case that a, b and c must all be even? If so, can you explain why?

Power Mad!

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Powers of numbers behave in surprising ways. Take a look at some of these and try to explain why they are true.

Always the Same

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Arrange the numbers 1 to 16 into a 4 by 4 array. Choose a number. Cross out the numbers on the same row and column. Repeat this process. Add up you four numbers. Why do they always add up to 34?

Geometric Parabola

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Explore what happens when you draw graphs of quadratic equations with coefficients based on a geometric sequence.

What Numbers Can We Make Now?

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Imagine we have four bags containing numbers from a sequence. What numbers can we make now?

The Genie in the Jar

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

This jar used to hold perfumed oil. It contained enough oil to fill granid silver bottles. Each bottle held enough to fill ozvik golden goblets and each goblet held enough to fill vaswik crystal. . . .

Perfectly Square

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

The sums of the squares of three related numbers is also a perfect square - can you explain why?

N000ughty Thoughts

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

How many noughts are at the end of these giant numbers?

Janine's Conjecture

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Janine noticed, while studying some cube numbers, that if you take three consecutive whole numbers and multiply them together and then add the middle number of the three, you get the middle number. . . .

Cross-country Race

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Eight children enter the autumn cross-country race at school. How many possible ways could they come in at first, second and third places?

Thirty Nine, Seventy Five

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

We have exactly 100 coins. There are five different values of coins. We have decided to buy a piece of computer software for 39.75. We have the correct money, not a penny more, not a penny less! Can. . . .

Top-heavy Pyramids

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Use the numbers in the box below to make the base of a top-heavy pyramid whose top number is 200.

Always Perfect

Age 14 to 18
Challenge Level

Show that if you add 1 to the product of four consecutive numbers the answer is ALWAYS a perfect square.

Unit Fractions

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Consider the equation 1/a + 1/b + 1/c = 1 where a, b and c are natural numbers and 0 < a < b < c. Prove that there is only one set of values which satisfy this equation.

Go Forth and Generalise

Age 11 to 14

Spotting patterns can be an important first step - explaining why it is appropriate to generalise is the next step, and often the most interesting and important.

Multiplication Square

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

Pick a square within a multiplication square and add the numbers on each diagonal. What do you notice?

The Great Weights Puzzle

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

You have twelve weights, one of which is different from the rest. Using just 3 weighings, can you identify which weight is the odd one out, and whether it is heavier or lighter than the rest?

Elevenses

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

How many pairs of numbers can you find that add up to a multiple of 11? Do you notice anything interesting about your results?

Sticky Numbers

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Can you arrange the numbers 1 to 17 in a row so that each adjacent pair adds up to a square number?

What Numbers Can We Make?

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

More Number Sandwiches

Age 11 to 16
Challenge Level

When is it impossible to make number sandwiches?

Triangular Intersection

Age 14 to 16 Short
Challenge Level

What is the largest number of intersection points that a triangle and a quadrilateral can have?

Take Three from Five

Age 11 to 16
Challenge Level

Caroline and James pick sets of five numbers. Charlie chooses three of them that add together to make a multiple of three. Can they stop him?

Neighbourly Addition

Age 7 to 14
Challenge Level

I added together some of my neighbours' house numbers. Can you explain the patterns I noticed?

Calendar Capers

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

Choose any three by three square of dates on a calendar page...

Archimedes and Numerical Roots

Age 14 to 16
Challenge Level

The problem is how did Archimedes calculate the lengths of the sides of the polygons which needed him to be able to calculate square roots?

9 Weights

Age 11 to 14
Challenge Level

You have been given nine weights, one of which is slightly heavier than the rest. Can you work out which weight is heavier in just two weighings of the balance?