These formulae are often quoted, but rarely proved. In this article, we derive the formulae for the volumes of a square-based pyramid and a cone, using relatively simple mathematical concepts.

Imagine two identical cylindrical pipes meeting at right angles and think about the shape of the space which belongs to both pipes. Early Chinese mathematicians call this shape the mouhefanggai.

Consider the equation 1/a + 1/b + 1/c = 1 where a, b and c are natural numbers and 0 < a < b < c. Prove that there is only one set of values which satisfy this equation.

This jar used to hold perfumed oil. It contained enough oil to fill granid silver bottles. Each bottle held enough to fill ozvik golden goblets and each goblet held enough to fill vaswik crystal. . . .

Take any rectangle ABCD such that AB > BC. The point P is on AB and Q is on CD. Show that there is exactly one position of P and Q such that APCQ is a rhombus.

A circle has centre O and angle POR = angle QOR. Construct tangents at P and Q meeting at T. Draw a circle with diameter OT. Do P and Q lie inside, or on, or outside this circle?

The problem is how did Archimedes calculate the lengths of the sides of the polygons which needed him to be able to calculate square roots?

Kyle and his teacher disagree about his test score - who is right?

ABCD is a square. P is the midpoint of AB and is joined to C. A line from D perpendicular to PC meets the line at the point Q. Prove AQ = AD.

In how many distinct ways can six islands be joined by bridges so that each island can be reached from every other island...

Use the numbers in the box below to make the base of a top-heavy pyramid whose top number is 200.

Can you cross each of the seven bridges that join the north and south of the river to the two islands, once and once only, without retracing your steps?

There are four children in a family, two girls, Kate and Sally, and two boys, Tom and Ben. How old are the children?

A paradox is a statement that seems to be both untrue and true at the same time. This article looks at a few examples and challenges you to investigate them for yourself.

Prove Pythagoras' Theorem using enlargements and scale factors.

Points A, B and C are the centres of three circles, each one of which touches the other two. Prove that the perimeter of the triangle ABC is equal to the diameter of the largest circle.

Find the area of the annulus in terms of the length of the chord which is tangent to the inner circle.

A composite number is one that is neither prime nor 1. Show that 10201 is composite in any base.

Some diagrammatic 'proofs' of algebraic identities and inequalities.

The country Sixtania prints postage stamps with only three values 6 lucres, 10 lucres and 15 lucres (where the currency is in lucres).Which values cannot be made up with combinations of these postage. . . .

I am exactly n times my daughter's age. In m years I shall be ... How old am I?

Take any pair of two digit numbers x=ab and y=cd where, without loss of generality, ab > cd . Form two 4 digit numbers r=abcd and s=cdab and calculate: {r^2 - s^2} /{x^2 - y^2}.

Problem solving is at the heart of the NRICH site. All the problems give learners opportunities to learn, develop or use mathematical concepts and skills. Read here for more information.

What can you say about the lengths of the sides of a quadrilateral whose vertices are on a unit circle?

Show that if you add 1 to the product of four consecutive numbers the answer is ALWAYS a perfect square.

If you know the sizes of the angles marked with coloured dots in this diagram which angles can you find by calculation?

It is impossible to trisect an angle using only ruler and compasses but it can be done using a carpenter's square.

Toni Beardon has chosen this article introducing a rich area for practical exploration and discovery in 3D geometry

Caroline and James pick sets of five numbers. Charlie chooses three of them that add together to make a multiple of three. Can they stop him?

Take any prime number greater than 3 , square it and subtract one. Working on the building blocks will help you to explain what is special about your results.

The first of two articles on Pythagorean Triples which asks how many right angled triangles can you find with the lengths of each side exactly a whole number measurement. Try it!

This is the second article on right-angled triangles whose edge lengths are whole numbers.

Some puzzles requiring no knowledge of knot theory, just a careful inspection of the patterns. A glimpse of the classification of knots and a little about prime knots, crossing numbers and. . . .

Patterns that repeat in a line are strangely interesting. How many types are there and how do you tell one type from another?

Semicircles are drawn on the sides of a rectangle. Prove that the sum of the areas of the four crescents is equal to the area of the rectangle.

Prove that, given any three parallel lines, an equilateral triangle always exists with one vertex on each of the three lines.

Is the mean of the squares of two numbers greater than, or less than, the square of their means?

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

Can you make sense of these three proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem?

This article stems from research on the teaching of proof and offers guidance on how to move learners from focussing on experimental arguments to mathematical arguments and deductive reasoning.

Can you arrange the numbers 1 to 17 in a row so that each adjacent pair adds up to a square number?

Draw some quadrilaterals on a 9-point circle and work out the angles. Is there a theorem?

Explore what happens when you draw graphs of quadratic equations with coefficients based on a geometric sequence.

L triominoes can fit together to make larger versions of themselves. Is every size possible to make in this way?

Try to solve this very difficult problem and then study our two suggested solutions. How would you use your knowledge to try to solve variants on the original problem?

How many pairs of numbers can you find that add up to a multiple of 11? Do you notice anything interesting about your results?

Advent Calendar 2011 - a mathematical activity for each day during the run-up to Christmas.

Construct two equilateral triangles on a straight line. There are two lengths that look the same - can you prove it?