These gnomons appear to have more than a passing connection with the Fibonacci sequence. This problem ask you to investigate some of these connections.

What is the value of the integers a and b where sqrt(8-4sqrt3) = sqrt a - sqrt b?

Can you work out the irrational numbers that belong in the circles to make the multiplication arithmagon correct?

For which values of n is the Fibonacci number fn even? Which Fibonnaci numbers are divisible by 3?

Investigate sequences given by $a_n = \frac{1+a_{n-1}}{a_{n-2}}$ for different choices of the first two terms. Make a conjecture about the behaviour of these sequences. Can you prove your conjecture?

Pick a square within a multiplication square and add the numbers on each diagonal. What do you notice?

Given that a, b and c are natural numbers show that if sqrt a+sqrt b is rational then it is a natural number. Extend this to 3 variables.

Can you find the values at the vertices when you know the values on the edges of these multiplication arithmagons?

Janine noticed, while studying some cube numbers, that if you take three consecutive whole numbers and multiply them together and then add the middle number of the three, you get the middle number. . . .

Many numbers can be expressed as the difference of two perfect squares. What do you notice about the numbers you CANNOT make?

Jo has three numbers which she adds together in pairs. When she does this she has three different totals: 11, 17 and 22 What are the three numbers Jo had to start with?”

Some students have been working out the number of strands needed for different sizes of cable. Can you make sense of their solutions?

What would you get if you continued this sequence of fraction sums? 1/2 + 2/1 = 2/3 + 3/2 = 3/4 + 4/3 =

Beautiful mathematics. Two 18 year old students gave eight different proofs of one result then generalised it from the 3 by 1 case to the n by 1 case and proved the general result.

When if ever do you get the right answer if you add two fractions by adding the numerators and adding the denominators?

The diagram illustrates the formula: 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n - 1) = n² Use the diagram to show that any odd number is the difference of two squares.

Choose four consecutive whole numbers. Multiply the first and last numbers together. Multiply the middle pair together. What do you notice?

Polygons drawn on square dotty paper have dots on their perimeter (p) and often internal (i) ones as well. Find a relationship between p, i and the area of the polygons.

Make and prove a conjecture about the cyclic quadrilateral inscribed in a circle of radius r that has the maximum perimeter and the maximum area.

If for any triangle ABC tan(A - B) + tan(B - C) + tan(C - A) = 0 what can you say about the triangle?

It would be nice to have a strategy for disentangling any tangled ropes...

Can you show that you can share a square pizza equally between two people by cutting it four times using vertical, horizontal and diagonal cuts through any point inside the square?

Given a set of points (x,y) with distinct x values, find a polynomial that goes through all of them, then prove some results about the existence and uniqueness of these polynomials.

Sets of integers like 3, 4, 5 are called Pythagorean Triples, because they could be the lengths of the sides of a right-angled triangle. Can you find any more?

Build gnomons that are related to the Fibonacci sequence and try to explain why this is possible.

Triangle ABC is an equilateral triangle with three parallel lines going through the vertices. Calculate the length of the sides of the triangle if the perpendicular distances between the parallel. . . .

Start with any number of counters in any number of piles. 2 players take it in turns to remove any number of counters from a single pile. The winner is the player to take the last counter.

Use the animation to help you work out how many lines are needed to draw mystic roses of different sizes.

Can you explain the surprising results Jo found when she calculated the difference between square numbers?

Can you find the values at the vertices when you know the values on the edges?

Jo made a cube from some smaller cubes, painted some of the faces of the large cube, and then took it apart again. 45 small cubes had no paint on them at all. How many small cubes did Jo use?

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

An article for teachers and pupils that encourages you to look at the mathematical properties of similar games.

Imagine a large cube made from small red cubes being dropped into a pot of yellow paint. How many of the small cubes will have yellow paint on their faces?

What's the largest volume of box you can make from a square of paper?

Generalise the sum of a GP by using derivatives to make the coefficients into powers of the natural numbers.

Can you see how to build a harmonic triangle? Can you work out the next two rows?

Charlie has moved between countries and the average income of both has increased. How can this be so?

This article for teachers describes several games, found on the site, all of which have a related structure that can be used to develop the skills of strategic planning.

Start with any number of counters in any number of piles. 2 players take it in turns to remove any number of counters from a single pile. The loser is the player who takes the last counter.

What is the ratio of the area of a square inscribed in a semicircle to the area of the square inscribed in the entire circle?

Take any two positive numbers. Calculate the arithmetic and geometric means. Repeat the calculations to generate a sequence of arithmetic means and geometric means. Make a note of what happens to the. . . .

A game for 2 players with similarities to NIM. Place one counter on each spot on the games board. Players take it is turns to remove 1 or 2 adjacent counters. The winner picks up the last counter.

Here explore some ideas of how the definitions and methods of calculus change if you integrate or differentiate n times when n is not a whole number.