When number pyramids have a sequence on the bottom layer, some interesting patterns emerge...

Can you find an efficient method to work out how many handshakes there would be if hundreds of people met?

Many numbers can be expressed as the difference of two perfect squares. What do you notice about the numbers you CANNOT make?

Spotting patterns can be an important first step - explaining why it is appropriate to generalise is the next step, and often the most interesting and important.

The sum of the numbers 4 and 1 [1/3] is the same as the product of 4 and 1 [1/3]; that is to say 4 + 1 [1/3] = 4 × 1 [1/3]. What other numbers have the sum equal to the product and can this be so for. . . .

A little bit of algebra explains this 'magic'. Ask a friend to pick 3 consecutive numbers and to tell you a multiple of 3. Then ask them to add the four numbers and multiply by 67, and to tell you. . . .

Take a look at the multiplication square. The first eleven triangle numbers have been identified. Can you see a pattern? Does the pattern continue?

Can you find the values at the vertices when you know the values on the edges of these multiplication arithmagons?

Think of a number, add one, double it, take away 3, add the number you first thought of, add 7, divide by 3 and take away the number you first thought of. You should now be left with 2. How do I. . . .

Can you describe this route to infinity? Where will the arrows take you next?

Try entering different sets of numbers in the number pyramids. How does the total at the top change?

It starts quite simple but great opportunities for number discoveries and patterns!

Explore the effect of reflecting in two parallel mirror lines.

Triangle ABC is an equilateral triangle with three parallel lines going through the vertices. Calculate the length of the sides of the triangle if the perpendicular distances between the parallel. . . .

Imagine we have four bags containing numbers from a sequence. What numbers can we make now?

Can you find the values at the vertices when you know the values on the edges?

Four bags contain a large number of 1s, 3s, 5s and 7s. Pick any ten numbers from the bags above so that their total is 37.

Explore the effect of reflecting in two intersecting mirror lines.

Can you find sets of sloping lines that enclose a square?

What would you get if you continued this sequence of fraction sums? 1/2 + 2/1 = 2/3 + 3/2 = 3/4 + 4/3 =

Find some examples of pairs of numbers such that their sum is a factor of their product. eg. 4 + 12 = 16 and 4 × 12 = 48 and 16 is a factor of 48.

Square numbers can be represented as the sum of consecutive odd numbers. What is the sum of 1 + 3 + ..... + 149 + 151 + 153?

We can show that (x + 1)² = x² + 2x + 1 by considering the area of an (x + 1) by (x + 1) square. Show in a similar way that (x + 2)² = x² + 4x + 4

Imagine a large cube made from small red cubes being dropped into a pot of yellow paint. How many of the small cubes will have yellow paint on their faces?

Choose four consecutive whole numbers. Multiply the first and last numbers together. Multiply the middle pair together. What do you notice?

The diagram illustrates the formula: 1 + 3 + 5 + ... + (2n - 1) = nĀ² Use the diagram to show that any odd number is the difference of two squares.

It would be nice to have a strategy for disentangling any tangled ropes...

Pick the number of times a week that you eat chocolate. This number must be more than one but less than ten. Multiply this number by 2. Add 5 (for Sunday). Multiply by 50... Can you explain why it. . . .

In how many ways can you arrange three dice side by side on a surface so that the sum of the numbers on each of the four faces (top, bottom, front and back) is equal?

You can work out the number someone else is thinking of as follows. Ask a friend to think of any natural number less than 100. Then ask them to tell you the remainders when this number is divided by. . . .

Charlie has moved between countries and the average income of both has increased. How can this be so?

With one cut a piece of card 16 cm by 9 cm can be made into two pieces which can be rearranged to form a square 12 cm by 12 cm. Explain how this can be done.

Is there a relationship between the coordinates of the endpoints of a line and the number of grid squares it crosses?

Imagine you have a large supply of 3kg and 8kg weights. How many of each weight would you need for the average (mean) of the weights to be 6kg? What other averages could you have?

Start with two numbers and generate a sequence where the next number is the mean of the last two numbers...

How could Penny, Tom and Matthew work out how many chocolates there are in different sized boxes?

The Egyptians expressed all fractions as the sum of different unit fractions. Here is a chance to explore how they could have written different fractions.

Consider all two digit numbers (10, 11, . . . ,99). In writing down all these numbers, which digits occur least often, and which occur most often ? What about three digit numbers, four digit numbers. . . .

If you can copy a network without lifting your pen off the paper and without drawing any line twice, then it is traversable. Decide which of these diagrams are traversable.

Can you explain the surprising results Jo found when she calculated the difference between square numbers?

A country has decided to have just two different coins, 3z and 5z coins. Which totals can be made? Is there a largest total that cannot be made? How do you know?

Triangular numbers can be represented by a triangular array of squares. What do you notice about the sum of identical triangle numbers?

This article for teachers describes several games, found on the site, all of which have a related structure that can be used to develop the skills of strategic planning.

An article for teachers and pupils that encourages you to look at the mathematical properties of similar games.

What are the areas of these triangles? What do you notice? Can you generalise to other "families" of triangles?

Charlie has made a Magic V. Can you use his example to make some more? And how about Magic Ls, Ns and Ws?

How many moves does it take to swap over some red and blue frogs? Do you have a method?

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

How many pairs of numbers can you find that add up to a multiple of 11? Do you notice anything interesting about your results?