This article stems from research on the teaching of proof and offers guidance on how to move learners from focussing on experimental arguments to mathematical arguments and deductive reasoning.

These formulae are often quoted, but rarely proved. In this article, we derive the formulae for the volumes of a square-based pyramid and a cone, using relatively simple mathematical concepts.

Eight children enter the autumn cross-country race at school. How many possible ways could they come in at first, second and third places?

We have exactly 100 coins. There are five different values of coins. We have decided to buy a piece of computer software for 39.75. We have the correct money, not a penny more, not a penny less! Can. . . .

This jar used to hold perfumed oil. It contained enough oil to fill granid silver bottles. Each bottle held enough to fill ozvik golden goblets and each goblet held enough to fill vaswik crystal. . . .

Liam's house has a staircase with 12 steps. He can go down the steps one at a time or two at time. In how many different ways can Liam go down the 12 steps?

There are four children in a family, two girls, Kate and Sally, and two boys, Tom and Ben. How old are the children?

Choose a couple of the sequences. Try to picture how to make the next, and the next, and the next... Can you describe your reasoning?

Write down a three-digit number Change the order of the digits to get a different number Find the difference between the two three digit numbers Follow the rest of the instructions then try. . . .

Do you know how to find the area of a triangle? You can count the squares. What happens if we turn the triangle on end? Press the button and see. Try counting the number of units in the triangle now. . . .

What does logic mean to us and is that different to mathematical logic? We will explore these questions in this article.

Consider the equation 1/a + 1/b + 1/c = 1 where a, b and c are natural numbers and 0 < a < b < c. Prove that there is only one set of values which satisfy this equation.

A paradox is a statement that seems to be both untrue and true at the same time. This article looks at a few examples and challenges you to investigate them for yourself.

Spotting patterns can be an important first step - explaining why it is appropriate to generalise is the next step, and often the most interesting and important.

If you know the sizes of the angles marked with coloured dots in this diagram which angles can you find by calculation?

Carry out cyclic permutations of nine digit numbers containing the digits from 1 to 9 (until you get back to the first number). Prove that whatever number you choose, they will add to the same total.

Here are some examples of 'cons', and see if you can figure out where the trick is.

Can you see how this picture illustrates the formula for the sum of the first six cube numbers?

Your partner chooses two beads and places them side by side behind a screen. What is the minimum number of guesses you would need to be sure of guessing the two beads and their positions?

Can you visualise whether these nets fold up into 3D shapes? Watch the videos each time to see if you were correct.

From a group of any 4 students in a class of 30, each has exchanged Christmas cards with the other three. Show that some students have exchanged cards with all the other students in the class. How. . . .

This article introduces the idea of generic proof for younger children and illustrates how one example can offer a proof of a general result through unpacking its underlying structure.

Nine cross country runners compete in a team competition in which there are three matches. If you were a judge how would you decide who would win?

Six points are arranged in space so that no three are collinear. How many line segments can be formed by joining the points in pairs?

In the following sum the letters A, B, C, D, E and F stand for six distinct digits. Find all the ways of replacing the letters with digits so that the arithmetic is correct.

A standard die has the numbers 1, 2 and 3 are opposite 6, 5 and 4 respectively so that opposite faces add to 7? If you make standard dice by writing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 on blank cubes you will find. . . .

This addition sum uses all ten digits 0, 1, 2...9 exactly once. Find the sum and show that the one you give is the only possibility.

Are these statements relating to odd and even numbers always true, sometimes true or never true?

Are these statements always true, sometimes true or never true?

Euler discussed whether or not it was possible to stroll around Koenigsberg crossing each of its seven bridges exactly once. Experiment with different numbers of islands and bridges.

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

If you can copy a network without lifting your pen off the paper and without drawing any line twice, then it is traversable. Decide which of these diagrams are traversable.

A game for 2 players that can be played online. Players take it in turns to select a word from the 9 words given. The aim is to select all the occurrences of the same letter.

When number pyramids have a sequence on the bottom layer, some interesting patterns emerge...

Can you arrange the numbers 1 to 17 in a row so that each adjacent pair adds up to a square number?

When is it impossible to make number sandwiches?

Points A, B and C are the centres of three circles, each one of which touches the other two. Prove that the perimeter of the triangle ABC is equal to the diameter of the largest circle.

Find the area of the annulus in terms of the length of the chord which is tangent to the inner circle.

Powers of numbers behave in surprising ways. Take a look at some of these and try to explain why they are true.

Are these statements always true, sometimes true or never true?

This article invites you to get familiar with a strategic game called "sprouts". The game is simple enough for younger children to understand, and has also provided experienced mathematicians with. . . .

Look at what happens when you take a number, square it and subtract your answer. What kind of number do you get? Can you prove it?

Can you find different ways of creating paths using these paving slabs?

What happens when you add three numbers together? Will your answer be odd or even? How do you know?

Construct two equilateral triangles on a straight line. There are two lengths that look the same - can you prove it?

Learn about the link between logical arguments and electronic circuits. Investigate the logical connectives by making and testing your own circuits and record your findings in truth tables.

How many pairs of numbers can you find that add up to a multiple of 11? Do you notice anything interesting about your results?