In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

Here is a picnic that Petros and Michael are going to share equally. Can you tell us what each of them will have?

There are four equal weights on one side of the scale and an apple on the other side. What can you say that is true about the apple and the weights from the picture?

This task offers an opportunity to explore all sorts of number relationships, but particularly multiplication.

The value of the circle changes in each of the following problems. Can you discover its value in each problem?

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

On the table there is a pile of oranges and lemons that weighs exactly one kilogram. Using the information, can you work out how many lemons there are?

Watch our videos of multiplication methods that you may not have met before. Can you make sense of them?

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Find the next number in this pattern: 3, 7, 19, 55 ...

How will you work out which numbers have been used to create this multiplication square?

Number problems at primary level that require careful consideration.

How would you find out how many football cards Catrina has collected?

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

All the girls would like a puzzle each for Christmas and all the boys would like a book each. Solve the riddle to find out how many puzzles and books Santa left.

Use the information to work out how many gifts there are in each pile.

Chandrika was practising a long distance run. Can you work out how long the race was from the information?

This number has 903 digits. What is the sum of all 903 digits?

Grandma found her pie balanced on the scale with two weights and a quarter of a pie. So how heavy was each pie?

Amy has a box containing domino pieces but she does not think it is a complete set. She has 24 dominoes in her box and there are 125 spots on them altogether. Which of her domino pieces are missing?

Use this information to work out whether the front or back wheel of this bicycle gets more wear and tear.

It's Sahila's birthday and she is having a party. How could you answer these questions using a picture, with things, with numbers or symbols?

Try adding together the dates of all the days in one week. Now multiply the first date by 7 and add 21. Can you explain what happens?

Number problems at primary level that may require resilience.

There are three buckets each of which holds a maximum of 5 litres. Use the clues to work out how much liquid there is in each bucket.

On a calculator, make 15 by using only the 2 key and any of the four operations keys. How many ways can you find to do it?

This task combines spatial awareness with addition and multiplication.

This challenge combines addition, multiplication, perseverance and even proof.

Using the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 once and only once, and the operations x and ÷ once and only once, what is the smallest whole number you can make?

Put a number at the top of the machine and collect a number at the bottom. What do you get? Which numbers get back to themselves?

Take the number 6 469 693 230 and divide it by the first ten prime numbers and you'll find the most beautiful, most magic of all numbers. What is it?

Start by putting one million (1 000 000) into the display of your calculator. Can you reduce this to 7 using just the 7 key and add, subtract, multiply, divide and equals as many times as you like?

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?

Resources to support understanding of multiplication and division through playing with number.

Annie cut this numbered cake into 3 pieces with 3 cuts so that the numbers on each piece added to the same total. Where were the cuts and what fraction of the whole cake was each piece?

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

In November, Liz was interviewed for an article on a parents' website about learning times tables. Read the article here.

There are over sixty different ways of making 24 by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing all four numbers 4, 6, 6 and 8 (using each number only once). How many can you find?

In the multiplication calculation, some of the digits have been replaced by letters and others by asterisks. Can you reconstruct the original multiplication?

Here are the prices for 1st and 2nd class mail within the UK. You have an unlimited number of each of these stamps. Which stamps would you need to post a parcel weighing 825g?

Use the information about Sally and her brother to find out how many children there are in the Brown family.

Peter, Melanie, Amil and Jack received a total of 38 chocolate eggs. Use the information to work out how many eggs each person had.

After training hard, these two children have improved their results. Can you work out the length or height of their first jumps?

The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

This article for teachers looks at how teachers can use problems from the NRICH site to help them teach division.

Annie and Ben are playing a game with a calculator. What was Annie's secret number?