In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

Vera is shopping at a market with these coins in her purse. Which things could she give exactly the right amount for?

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

What do the digits in the number fifteen add up to? How many other numbers have digits with the same total but no zeros?

Fill in the missing numbers so that adding each pair of corner numbers gives you the number between them (in the box).

Fill in the numbers to make the sum of each row, column and diagonal equal to 34. For an extra challenge try the huge American Flag magic square.

Peter, Melanie, Amil and Jack received a total of 38 chocolate eggs. Use the information to work out how many eggs each person had.

There are three buckets each of which holds a maximum of 5 litres. Use the clues to work out how much liquid there is in each bucket.

Susie took cherries out of a bowl by following a certain pattern. How many cherries had there been in the bowl to start with if she was left with 14 single ones?

Here you see the front and back views of a dodecahedron. Each vertex has been numbered so that the numbers around each pentagonal face add up to 65. Can you find all the missing numbers?

Three children are going to buy some plants for their birthdays. They will plant them within circular paths. How could they do this?

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

Using 3 rods of integer lengths, none longer than 10 units and not using any rod more than once, you can measure all the lengths in whole units from 1 to 10 units. How many ways can you do this?

Start by putting one million (1 000 000) into the display of your calculator. Can you reduce this to 7 using just the 7 key and add, subtract, multiply, divide and equals as many times as you like?

In this 100 square, look at the green square which contains the numbers 2, 3, 12 and 13. What is the sum of the numbers that are diagonally opposite each other? What do you notice?

Arrange three 1s, three 2s and three 3s in this square so that every row, column and diagonal adds to the same total.

Annie cut this numbered cake into 3 pieces with 3 cuts so that the numbers on each piece added to the same total. Where were the cuts and what fraction of the whole cake was each piece?

Number problems at primary level that require careful consideration.

Number problems at primary level that may require resilience.

Use your logical reasoning to work out how many cows and how many sheep there are in each field.

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

Number problems at primary level to work on with others.

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Investigate the different distances of these car journeys and find out how long they take.

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

Cassandra, David and Lachlan are brothers and sisters. They range in age between 1 year and 14 years. Can you figure out their exact ages from the clues?

Tell your friends that you have a strange calculator that turns numbers backwards. What secret number do you have to enter to make 141 414 turn around?

Place the digits 1 to 9 into the circles so that each side of the triangle adds to the same total.

Use the information to work out how many gifts there are in each pile.

In sheep talk the only letters used are B and A. A sequence of words is formed by following certain rules. What do you notice when you count the letters in each word?

Can you draw a continuous line through 16 numbers on this grid so that the total of the numbers you pass through is as high as possible?

Investigate the different distances of these car journeys and find out how long they take.

This number has 903 digits. What is the sum of all 903 digits?

The picture shows a lighthouse and many underwater creatures. If you know the markings on the lighthouse are 1m apart, can you work out the distances between some of the different creatures?

A lady has a steel rod and a wooden pole and she knows the length of each. How can she measure out an 8 unit piece of pole?

Mrs Morgan, the class's teacher, pinned numbers onto the backs of three children. Use the information to find out what the three numbers were.

Some Games That May Be Nice or Nasty for an adult and child. Use your knowledge of place value to beat your opponent.

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

If each of these three shapes has a value, can you find the totals of the combinations? Perhaps you can use the shapes to make the given totals?

The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

Find a great variety of ways of asking questions which make 8.

Generate large numbers then give the values of each digit.

This challenge extends the Plants investigation so now four or more children are involved.

There are over sixty different ways of making 24 by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing all four numbers 4, 6, 6 and 8 (using each number only once). How many can you find?

In this problem you have to place four by four magic squares on the faces of a cube so that along each edge of the cube the numbers match.