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Broad Topics > Numbers and the Number System > Factors and multiples

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Special Sums and Products

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Find some examples of pairs of numbers such that their sum is a factor of their product. eg. 4 + 12 = 16 and 4 × 12 = 48 and 16 is a factor of 48.

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Dozens

Age 7 to 14 Challenge Level:

Do you know a quick way to check if a number is a multiple of two? How about three, four or six?

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Shifting Times Tables

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Can you find a way to identify times tables after they have been shifted up or down?

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Adding in Rows

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

List any 3 numbers. It is always possible to find a subset of adjacent numbers that add up to a multiple of 3. Can you explain why and prove it?

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Even So

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Find some triples of whole numbers a, b and c such that a^2 + b^2 + c^2 is a multiple of 4. Is it necessarily the case that a, b and c must all be even? If so, can you explain why?

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Red Balloons, Blue Balloons

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Katie and Will have some balloons. Will's balloon burst at exactly the same size as Katie's at the beginning of a puff. How many puffs had Will done before his balloon burst?

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Counting Factors

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Is there an efficient way to work out how many factors a large number has?

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Mathematical Swimmer

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Twice a week I go swimming and swim the same number of lengths of the pool each time. As I swim, I count the lengths I've done so far, and make it into a fraction of the whole number of lengths I. . . .

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Ben's Game

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Ben passed a third of his counters to Jack, Jack passed a quarter of his counters to Emma and Emma passed a fifth of her counters to Ben. After this they all had the same number of counters.

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Satisfying Statements

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Can you find any two-digit numbers that satisfy all of these statements?

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Repeaters

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Choose any 3 digits and make a 6 digit number by repeating the 3 digits in the same order (e.g. 594594). Explain why whatever digits you choose the number will always be divisible by 7, 11 and 13.

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What Do You Need?

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Four of these clues are needed to find the chosen number on this grid and four are true but do nothing to help in finding the number. Can you sort out the clues and find the number?

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Three Times Seven

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

A three digit number abc is always divisible by 7 when 2a+3b+c is divisible by 7. Why?

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American Billions

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Play the divisibility game to create numbers in which the first two digits make a number divisible by 2, the first three digits make a number divisible by 3...

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Give Me Four Clues

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Four of these clues are needed to find the chosen number on this grid and four are true but do nothing to help in finding the number. Can you sort out the clues and find the number?

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Eminit

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

The number 8888...88M9999...99 is divisible by 7 and it starts with the digit 8 repeated 50 times and ends with the digit 9 repeated 50 times. What is the value of the digit M?

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Scoring with Dice

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

I throw three dice and get 5, 3 and 2. Add the scores on the three dice. What do you get? Now multiply the scores. What do you notice?

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Gabriel's Problem

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Gabriel multiplied together some numbers and then erased them. Can you figure out where each number was?

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Abundant Numbers

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

48 is called an abundant number because it is less than the sum of its factors (without itself). Can you find some more abundant numbers?

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Flashing Lights

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Norrie sees two lights flash at the same time, then one of them flashes every 4th second, and the other flashes every 5th second. How many times do they flash together during a whole minute?

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Adding All Nine

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Make a set of numbers that use all the digits from 1 to 9, once and once only. Add them up. The result is divisible by 9. Add each of the digits in the new number. What is their sum? Now try some. . . .

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Number Tracks

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Ben’s class were cutting up number tracks. First they cut them into twos and added up the numbers on each piece. What patterns could they see?

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AB Search

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

The five digit number A679B, in base ten, is divisible by 72. What are the values of A and B?

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Got it for Two

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Got It game for an adult and child. How can you play so that you know you will always win?

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Being Resilient - Primary Number

Age 5 to 11 Challenge Level:

Number problems at primary level that may require resilience.

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Product Sudoku

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

The clues for this Sudoku are the product of the numbers in adjacent squares.

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Three Neighbours

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Look at three 'next door neighbours' amongst the counting numbers. Add them together. What do you notice?

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Missing Multipliers

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

What is the smallest number of answers you need to reveal in order to work out the missing headers?

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Three Dice

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

Investigate the sum of the numbers on the top and bottom faces of a line of three dice. What do you notice?

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Crossings

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

In this problem we are looking at sets of parallel sticks that cross each other. What is the least number of crossings you can make? And the greatest?

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What's in the Box?

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

This big box multiplies anything that goes inside it by the same number. If you know the numbers that come out, what multiplication might be going on in the box?

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Factoring Factorials

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Find the highest power of 11 that will divide into 1000! exactly.

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Multiplication Series: Number Arrays

Age 5 to 11

This article for teachers describes how number arrays can be a useful reprentation for many number concepts.

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Cuboids

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Find a cuboid (with edges of integer values) that has a surface area of exactly 100 square units. Is there more than one? Can you find them all?

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What Numbers Can We Make Now?

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Imagine we have four bags containing numbers from a sequence. What numbers can we make now?

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What Numbers Can We Make?

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

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A First Product Sudoku

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Given the products of adjacent cells, can you complete this Sudoku?

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How Old Are the Children?

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

A student in a maths class was trying to get some information from her teacher. She was given some clues and then the teacher ended by saying, "Well, how old are they?"

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Powerful Factorial

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1. The highest power of 2 that divides exactly into 6! is 4 since (6!) / (2^4 ) = 45. What is the highest power of two that divides exactly into 100!?

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Divisively So

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

How many numbers less than 1000 are NOT divisible by either: a) 2 or 5; or b) 2, 5 or 7?

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Remainder

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

What is the remainder when 2^2002 is divided by 7? What happens with different powers of 2?

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Gaxinta

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

A number N is divisible by 10, 90, 98 and 882 but it is NOT divisible by 50 or 270 or 686 or 1764. It is also known that N is a factor of 9261000. What is N?

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Ewa's Eggs

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

I put eggs into a basket in groups of 7 and noticed that I could easily have divided them into piles of 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 and always have one left over. How many eggs were in the basket?

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Remainders

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

I'm thinking of a number. When my number is divided by 5 the remainder is 4. When my number is divided by 3 the remainder is 2. Can you find my number?

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Have You Got It?

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Can you explain the strategy for winning this game with any target?

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Oh! Hidden Inside?

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Find the number which has 8 divisors, such that the product of the divisors is 331776.

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Digat

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

What is the value of the digit A in the sum below: [3(230 + A)]^2 = 49280A

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What Two ...?

Age 7 to 11 Short Challenge Level:

56 406 is the product of two consecutive numbers. What are these two numbers?

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Funny Factorisation

Age 11 to 14 Challenge Level:

Using the digits 1 to 9, the number 4396 can be written as the product of two numbers. Can you find the factors?

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Zios and Zepts

Age 7 to 11 Challenge Level:

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?