This challenge involves calculating the number of candles needed on birthday cakes. It is an opportunity to explore numbers and discover new things.

In this investigation, you must try to make houses using cubes. If the base must not spill over 4 squares and you have 7 cubes which stand for 7 rooms, what different designs can you come up with?

This problem is based on the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Investigate the different numbers of people and rats there could have been if you know how many legs there are altogether!

What is the smallest number of tiles needed to tile this patio? Can you investigate patios of different sizes?

Lolla bought a balloon at the circus. She gave the clown six coins to pay for it. What could Lolla have paid for the balloon?

You cannot choose a selection of ice cream flavours that includes totally what someone has already chosen. Have a go and find all the different ways in which seven children can have ice cream.

Ana and Ross looked in a trunk in the attic. They found old cloaks and gowns, hats and masks. How many possible costumes could they make?

How many shapes can you build from three red and two green cubes? Can you use what you've found out to predict the number for four red and two green?

When newspaper pages get separated at home we have to try to sort them out and get things in the correct order. How many ways can we arrange these pages so that the numbering may be different?

How many different shaped boxes can you design for 36 sweets in one layer? Can you arrange the sweets so that no sweets of the same colour are next to each other in any direction?

How could you put eight beanbags in the hoops so that there are four in the blue hoop, five in the red and six in the yellow? Can you find all the ways of doing this?

This challenge is to design different step arrangements, which must go along a distance of 6 on the steps and must end up at 6 high.

If we had 16 light bars which digital numbers could we make? How will you know you've found them all?

Arrange eight of the numbers between 1 and 9 in the Polo Square below so that each side adds to the same total.

Suppose we allow ourselves to use three numbers less than 10 and multiply them together. How many different products can you find? How do you know you've got them all?

I like to walk along the cracks of the paving stones, but not the outside edge of the path itself. How many different routes can you find for me to take?

Investigate the different ways you could split up these rooms so that you have double the number.

Suppose there is a train with 24 carriages which are going to be put together to make up some new trains. Can you find all the ways that this can be done?

How many ways can you find of tiling the square patio, using square tiles of different sizes?

The challenge here is to find as many routes as you can for a fence to go so that this town is divided up into two halves, each with 8 blocks.

This tricky challenge asks you to find ways of going across rectangles, going through exactly ten squares.

If you have three circular objects, you could arrange them so that they are separate, touching, overlapping or inside each other. Can you investigate all the different possibilities?

In how many ways can you stack these rods, following the rules?

Let's suppose that you are going to have a magazine which has 16 pages of A5 size. Can you find some different ways to make these pages? Investigate the pattern for each if you number the pages.

Investigate all the different squares you can make on this 5 by 5 grid by making your starting side go from the bottom left hand point. Can you find out the areas of all these squares?

Place the 16 different combinations of cup/saucer in this 4 by 4 arrangement so that no row or column contains more than one cup or saucer of the same colour.

Cut differently-sized square corners from a square piece of paper to make boxes without lids. Do they all have the same volume?

Three children are going to buy some plants for their birthdays. They will plant them within circular paths. How could they do this?

Place this "worm" on the 100 square and find the total of the four squares it covers. Keeping its head in the same place, what other totals can you make?

We can arrange dots in a similar way to the 5 on a dice and they usually sit quite well into a rectangular shape. How many altogether in this 3 by 5? What happens for other sizes?

Which times on a digital clock have a line of symmetry? Which look the same upside-down? You might like to try this investigation and find out!

In a Magic Square all the rows, columns and diagonals add to the 'Magic Constant'. How would you change the magic constant of this square?

Write the numbers up to 64 in an interesting way so that the shape they make at the end is interesting, different, more exciting ... than just a square.

Ben has five coins in his pocket. How much money might he have?

An investigation that gives you the opportunity to make and justify predictions.

Roll two red dice and a green dice. Add the two numbers on the red dice and take away the number on the green. What are all the different possible answers?

This challenge encourages you to explore dividing a three-digit number by a single-digit number.

Place four pebbles on the sand in the form of a square. Keep adding as few pebbles as necessary to double the area. How many extra pebbles are added each time?

What happens if you join every second point on this circle? How about every third point? Try with different steps and see if you can predict what will happen.

Take 5 cubes of one colour and 2 of another colour. How many different ways can you join them if the 5 must touch the table and the 2 must not touch the table?

How many models can you find which obey these rules?

48 is called an abundant number because it is less than the sum of its factors (without itself). Can you find some more abundant numbers?

When Charlie asked his grandmother how old she is, he didn't get a straightforward reply! Can you work out how old she is?

How many different ways can you find of fitting five hexagons together? How will you know you have found all the ways?

What happens when you add the digits of a number then multiply the result by 2 and you keep doing this? You could try for different numbers and different rules.

Using different numbers of sticks, how many different triangles are you able to make? Can you make any rules about the numbers of sticks that make the most triangles?

What is the smallest cuboid that you can put in this box so that you cannot fit another that's the same into it?

An activity making various patterns with 2 x 1 rectangular tiles.

This challenging activity involves finding different ways to distribute fifteen items among four sets, when the sets must include three, four, five and six items.

This challenge extends the Plants investigation so now four or more children are involved.