Stage: 3 Challenge Level:
Shuffles are more formally known as permutations. The first person to study permutations in any depth was Gauss. At the age of 19 he used them to prove that it was possible to construct a regular 17 sided polygon by ruler and compass. In the19th century Galois developed the theory of permutations into abstract group theory in order to prove that there is no formula to solve fifth order equations..