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Broad Topics > 2D Geometry, Shape and Space > Pythagoras' theorem

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Pythagoras Proofs

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Can you make sense of these three proofs of Pythagoras' Theorem?

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Partly Circles

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

What is the same and what is different about these circle questions? What connections can you make?

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Nicely Similar

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

If the hypotenuse (base) length is 100cm and if an extra line splits the base into 36cm and 64cm parts, what were the side lengths for the original right-angled triangle?

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Where Is the Dot?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

A dot starts at the point (1,0) and turns anticlockwise. Can you estimate the height of the dot after it has turned through 45 degrees? Can you calculate its height?

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Cubestick

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Stick some cubes together to make a cuboid. Find two of the angles by as many different methods as you can devise.

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Where to Land

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Chris is enjoying a swim but needs to get back for lunch. If she can swim at 3 m/s and run at 7m/sec, how far along the bank should she land in order to get back as quickly as possible?

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The Spider and the Fly

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A spider is sitting in the middle of one of the smallest walls in a room and a fly is resting beside the window. What is the shortest distance the spider would have to crawl to catch the fly?

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Tilted Squares

Stage: 3 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

It's easy to work out the areas of most squares that we meet, but what if they were tilted?

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Inscribed in a Circle

Stage: 3 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

The area of a square inscribed in a circle with a unit radius is, satisfyingly, 2. What is the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle with a unit radius?

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Belt

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

A belt of thin wire, length L, binds together two cylindrical welding rods, whose radii are R and r, by passing all the way around them both. Find L in terms of R and r.

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Pythagoras for a Tetrahedron

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

In a right-angled tetrahedron prove that the sum of the squares of the areas of the 3 faces in mutually perpendicular planes equals the square of the area of the sloping face. A generalisation. . . .

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Semi-detached

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A square of area 40 square cms is inscribed in a semicircle. Find the area of the square that could be inscribed in a circle of the same radius.

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Hex

Stage: 3 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Explain how the thirteen pieces making up the regular hexagon shown in the diagram can be re-assembled to form three smaller regular hexagons congruent to each other.

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Zig Zag

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Four identical right angled triangles are drawn on the sides of a square. Two face out, two face in. Why do the four vertices marked with dots lie on one line?

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Napkin

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

A napkin is folded so that a corner coincides with the midpoint of an opposite edge . Investigate the three triangles formed .

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Compare Areas

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Which has the greatest area, a circle or a square inscribed in an isosceles, right angle triangle?

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Qqq..cubed

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

It is known that the area of the largest equilateral triangular section of a cube is 140sq cm. What is the side length of the cube? The distances between the centres of two adjacent faces of. . . .

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Orthogonal Circle

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Given any three non intersecting circles in the plane find another circle or straight line which cuts all three circles orthogonally.

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Ladder and Cube

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

A 1 metre cube has one face on the ground and one face against a wall. A 4 metre ladder leans against the wall and just touches the cube. How high is the top of the ladder above the ground?

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Logosquares

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Ten squares form regular rings either with adjacent or opposite vertices touching. Calculate the inner and outer radii of the rings that surround the squares.

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Baby Circle

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

A small circle fits between two touching circles so that all three circles touch each other and have a common tangent? What is the exact radius of the smallest circle?

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Kite in a Square

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Can you make sense of the three methods to work out the area of the kite in the square?

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The Fire-fighter's Car Keys

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A fire-fighter needs to fill a bucket of water from the river and take it to a fire. What is the best point on the river bank for the fire-fighter to fill the bucket ?.

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Under the Ribbon

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

A ribbon is nailed down with a small amount of slack. What is the largest cube that can pass under the ribbon ?

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Spherical Triangles on Very Big Spheres

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

Shows that Pythagoras for Spherical Triangles reduces to Pythagoras's Theorem in the plane when the triangles are small relative to the radius of the sphere.

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Liethagoras' Theorem

Stage: 2 and 3

Liethagoras, Pythagoras' cousin (!), was jealous of Pythagoras and came up with his own theorem. Read this article to find out why other mathematicians laughed at him.

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Pythagoras

Stage: 2 and 3

Pythagoras of Samos was a Greek philosopher who lived from about 580 BC to about 500 BC. Find out about the important developments he made in mathematics, astronomy, and the theory of music.

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Golden Construction

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Draw a square and an arc of a circle and construct the Golden rectangle. Find the value of the Golden Ratio.

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The Dangerous Ratio

Stage: 3

This article for pupils and teachers looks at a number that even the great mathematician, Pythagoras, found terrifying.

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Classic Cube

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

The net of a cube is to be cut from a sheet of card 100 cm square. What is the maximum volume cube that can be made from a single piece of card?

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Slippage

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A ladder 3m long rests against a wall with one end a short distance from its base. Between the wall and the base of a ladder is a garden storage box 1m tall and 1m high. What is the maximum. . . .

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All Is Number

Stage: 2 and 3

Read all about Pythagoras' mathematical discoveries in this article written for students.

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All Tied Up

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A ribbon runs around a box so that it makes a complete loop with two parallel pieces of ribbon on the top. How long will the ribbon be?

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Cubic Rotations

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

There are thirteen axes of rotational symmetry of a unit cube. Describe them all. What is the average length of the parts of the axes of symmetry which lie inside the cube?

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Circle Scaling

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

You are given a circle with centre O. Describe how to construct with a straight edge and a pair of compasses, two other circles centre O so that the three circles have areas in the ratio 1:2:3.

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Circle Box

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

It is obvious that we can fit four circles of diameter 1 unit in a square of side 2 without overlapping. What is the smallest square into which we can fit 3 circles of diameter 1 unit?

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Xtra

Stage: 4 and 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Find the sides of an equilateral triangle ABC where a trapezium BCPQ is drawn with BP=CQ=2 , PQ=1 and AP+AQ=sqrt7 . Note: there are 2 possible interpretations.

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Squ-areas

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

Three squares are drawn on the sides of a triangle ABC. Their areas are respectively 18 000, 20 000 and 26 000 square centimetres. If the outer vertices of the squares are joined, three more. . . .

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Pythagoras Mod 5

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

Prove that for every right angled triangle which has sides with integer lengths: (1) the area of the triangle is even and (2) the length of one of the sides is divisible by 5.

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Chord

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:1

Equal touching circles have centres on a line. From a point of this line on a circle, a tangent is drawn to the farthest circle. Find the lengths of chords where the line cuts the other circles.

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The Dodecahedron

Stage: 5 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

What are the shortest distances between the centres of opposite faces of a regular solid dodecahedron on the surface and through the middle of the dodecahedron?

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Corridors

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

A 10x10x10 cube is made from 27 2x2 cubes with corridors between them. Find the shortest route from one corner to the opposite corner.

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Circumnavigation

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

The sides of a triangle are 25, 39 and 40 units of length. Find the diameter of the circumscribed circle.

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Picturing Pythagorean Triples

Stage: 4 and 5

This article discusses how every Pythagorean triple (a, b, c) can be illustrated by a square and an L shape within another square. You are invited to find some triples for yourself.

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Pythagorean Triples II

Stage: 3 and 4

This is the second article on right-angled triangles whose edge lengths are whole numbers.

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Pythagorean Triples I

Stage: 3 and 4

The first of two articles on Pythagorean Triples which asks how many right angled triangles can you find with the lengths of each side exactly a whole number measurement. Try it!

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Squaring the Circle and Circling the Square

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

If you continue the pattern, can you predict what each of the following areas will be? Try to explain your prediction.

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Cutting a Cube

Stage: 3 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

A half-cube is cut into two pieces by a plane through the long diagonal and at right angles to it. Can you draw a net of these pieces? Are they identical?

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Take a Square

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

Cut off three right angled isosceles triangles to produce a pentagon. With two lines, cut the pentagon into three parts which can be rearranged into another square.

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Semi-square

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3

What is the ratio of the area of a square inscribed in a semicircle to the area of the square inscribed in the entire circle?