The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

Can you replace the letters with numbers? Is there only one solution in each case?

What is the lowest number which always leaves a remainder of 1 when divided by each of the numbers from 2 to 10?

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

There are over sixty different ways of making 24 by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing all four numbers 4, 6, 6 and 8 (using each number only once). How many can you find?

This multiplication uses each of the digits 0 - 9 once and once only. Using the information given, can you replace the stars in the calculation with figures?

Can you see how these factor-multiple chains work? Find the chain which contains the smallest possible numbers. How about the largest possible numbers?

All the girls would like a puzzle each for Christmas and all the boys would like a book each. Solve the riddle to find out how many puzzles and books Santa left.

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Work out Tom's number from the answers he gives his friend. He will only answer 'yes' or 'no'.

56 406 is the product of two consecutive numbers. What are these two numbers?

Put operations signs between the numbers 3 4 5 6 to make the highest possible number and lowest possible number.

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

In the multiplication calculation, some of the digits have been replaced by letters and others by asterisks. Can you reconstruct the original multiplication?

Can you order the digits from 1-6 to make a number which is divisible by 6 so when the last digit is removed it becomes a 5-figure number divisible by 5, and so on?

Using the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 once and only once, and the operations x and ÷ once and only once, what is the smallest whole number you can make?

Can you arrange 5 different digits (from 0 - 9) in the cross in the way described?

Can you complete this calculation by filling in the missing numbers? In how many different ways can you do it?

Find at least one way to put in some operation signs (+ - x ÷) to make these digits come to 100.

There are four equal weights on one side of the scale and an apple on the other side. What can you say that is true about the apple and the weights from the picture?

This problem is based on the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Investigate the different numbers of people and rats there could have been if you know how many legs there are altogether!

Resources to support understanding of multiplication and division through playing with number.

Amy has a box containing domino pieces but she does not think it is a complete set. She has 24 dominoes in her box and there are 125 spots on them altogether. Which of her domino pieces are missing?

What do you notice about the date 03.06.09? Or 08.01.09? This challenge invites you to investigate some interesting dates yourself.

Chandrika was practising a long distance run. Can you work out how long the race was from the information?

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

What is the largest number you can make using the three digits 2, 3 and 4 in any way you like, using any operations you like? You can only use each digit once.

There is a clock-face where the numbers have become all mixed up. Can you find out where all the numbers have got to from these ten statements?

Find the product of the numbers on the routes from A to B. Which route has the smallest product? Which the largest?

Have a go at balancing this equation. Can you find different ways of doing it?

This big box multiplies anything that goes inside it by the same number. If you know the numbers that come out, what multiplication might be going on in the box?

Zumf makes spectacles for the residents of the planet Zargon, who have either 3 eyes or 4 eyes. How many lenses will Zumf need to make all the different orders for 9 families?

Use the information to work out how many gifts there are in each pile.

Can you work out some different ways to balance this equation?

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

This article for teachers looks at how teachers can use problems from the NRICH site to help them teach division.

Can you complete this jigsaw of the multiplication square?

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?

Go through the maze, collecting and losing your money as you go. Which route gives you the highest return? And the lowest?

Which is quicker, counting up to 30 in ones or counting up to 300 in tens? Why?

Here is a picnic that Petros and Michael are going to share equally. Can you tell us what each of them will have?

Can you find which shapes you need to put into the grid to make the totals at the end of each row and the bottom of each column?

These sixteen children are standing in four lines of four, one behind the other. They are each holding a card with a number on it. Can you work out the missing numbers?

This number has 903 digits. What is the sum of all 903 digits?

Use your logical reasoning to work out how many cows and how many sheep there are in each field.

Using the statements, can you work out how many of each type of rabbit there are in these pens?

A game for 2 people. Use your skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to blast the asteroids.