There are three buckets each of which holds a maximum of 5 litres. Use the clues to work out how much liquid there is in each bucket.

Try adding together the dates of all the days in one week. Now multiply the first date by 7 and add 21. Can you explain what happens?

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?

The value of the circle changes in each of the following problems. Can you discover its value in each problem?

On a calculator, make 15 by using only the 2 key and any of the four operations keys. How many ways can you find to do it?

Use your logical reasoning to work out how many cows and how many sheep there are in each field.

Peter, Melanie, Amil and Jack received a total of 38 chocolate eggs. Use the information to work out how many eggs each person had.

Number problems at primary level that may require determination.

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

Put operations signs between the numbers 3 4 5 6 to make the highest possible number and lowest possible number.

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

Use the information to work out how many gifts there are in each pile.

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

On the table there is a pile of oranges and lemons that weighs exactly one kilogram. Using the information, can you work out how many lemons there are?

Here are the prices for 1st and 2nd class mail within the UK. You have an unlimited number of each of these stamps. Which stamps would you need to post a parcel weighing 825g?

The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

Amy has a box containing domino pieces but she does not think it is a complete set. She has 24 dominoes in her box and there are 125 spots on them altogether. Which of her domino pieces are missing?

This number has 903 digits. What is the sum of all 903 digits?

Explore Alex's number plumber. What questions would you like to ask? What do you think is happening to the numbers?

What happens when you add the digits of a number then multiply the result by 2 and you keep doing this? You could try for different numbers and different rules.

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

Can you complete this calculation by filling in the missing numbers? In how many different ways can you do it?

Can you work out some different ways to balance this equation?

This task combines spatial awareness with addition and multiplication.

Have a go at balancing this equation. Can you find different ways of doing it?

Well now, what would happen if we lost all the nines in our number system? Have a go at writing the numbers out in this way and have a look at the multiplications table.

Annie cut this numbered cake into 3 pieces with 3 cuts so that the numbers on each piece added to the same total. Where were the cuts and what fraction of the whole cake was each piece?

Put a number at the top of the machine and collect a number at the bottom. What do you get? Which numbers get back to themselves?

There are over sixty different ways of making 24 by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing all four numbers 4, 6, 6 and 8 (using each number only once). How many can you find?

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

Look on the back of any modern book and you will find an ISBN code. Take this code and calculate this sum in the way shown. Can you see what the answers always have in common?

Number problems at primary level that require careful consideration.

Claire thinks she has the most sports cards in her album. "I have 12 pages with 2 cards on each page", says Claire. Ross counts his cards. "No! I have 3 cards on each of my pages and there are. . . .

There were 22 legs creeping across the web. How many flies? How many spiders?

Find at least one way to put in some operation signs (+ - x ÷) to make these digits come to 100.

This challenge combines addition, multiplication, perseverance and even proof.

Can you work out how many flowers there will be on the Amazing Splitting Plant after it has been growing for six weeks?

Can you arrange 5 different digits (from 0 - 9) in the cross in the way described?

This challenge encourages you to explore dividing a three-digit number by a single-digit number.

This multiplication uses each of the digits 0 - 9 once and once only. Using the information given, can you replace the stars in the calculation with figures?

Tom and Ben visited Numberland. Use the maps to work out the number of points each of their routes scores.

In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

How would you count the number of fingers in these pictures?