In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

In this 100 square, look at the green square which contains the numbers 2, 3, 12 and 13. What is the sum of the numbers that are diagonally opposite each other? What do you notice?

Some Games That May Be Nice or Nasty for an adult and child. Use your knowledge of place value to beat your opponent.

There are nasty versions of this dice game but we'll start with the nice ones...

Put operations signs between the numbers 3 4 5 6 to make the highest possible number and lowest possible number.

Can you draw a continuous line through 16 numbers on this grid so that the total of the numbers you pass through is as high as possible?

Number problems at primary level that require careful consideration.

Well now, what would happen if we lost all the nines in our number system? Have a go at writing the numbers out in this way and have a look at the multiplications table.

Can you hang weights in the right place to make the equaliser balance?

Number problems at primary level that may require determination.

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

The value of the circle changes in each of the following problems. Can you discover its value in each problem?

Cassandra, David and Lachlan are brothers and sisters. They range in age between 1 year and 14 years. Can you figure out their exact ages from the clues?

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

Place the digits 1 to 9 into the circles so that each side of the triangle adds to the same total.

Number problems at primary level to work on with others.

Tell your friends that you have a strange calculator that turns numbers backwards. What secret number do you have to enter to make 141 414 turn around?

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

On the table there is a pile of oranges and lemons that weighs exactly one kilogram. Using the information, can you work out how many lemons there are?

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

Amy has a box containing domino pieces but she does not think it is a complete set. She has 24 dominoes in her box and there are 125 spots on them altogether. Which of her domino pieces are missing?

Try adding together the dates of all the days in one week. Now multiply the first date by 7 and add 21. Can you explain what happens?

Complete these two jigsaws then put one on top of the other. What happens when you add the 'touching' numbers? What happens when you change the position of the jigsaws?

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

Annie cut this numbered cake into 3 pieces with 3 cuts so that the numbers on each piece added to the same total. Where were the cuts and what fraction of the whole cake was each piece?

On Planet Plex, there are only 6 hours in the day. Can you answer these questions about how Arog the Alien spends his day?

Sam got into an elevator. He went down five floors, up six floors, down seven floors, then got out on the second floor. On what floor did he get on?

Arrange three 1s, three 2s and three 3s in this square so that every row, column and diagonal adds to the same total.

Can you each work out the number on your card? What do you notice? How could you sort the cards?

What do the digits in the number fifteen add up to? How many other numbers have digits with the same total but no zeros?

Woof is a big dog. Yap is a little dog. Emma has 16 dog biscuits to give to the two dogs. She gave Woof 4 more biscuits than Yap. How many biscuits did each dog get?

Investigate the different distances of these car journeys and find out how long they take.

I was looking at the number plate of a car parked outside. Using my special code S208VBJ adds to 65. Can you crack my code and use it to find out what both of these number plates add up to?

There are three baskets, a brown one, a red one and a pink one, holding a total of 10 eggs. Can you use the information given to find out how many eggs are in each basket?

Investigate what happens when you add house numbers along a street in different ways.

Choose four different digits from 1-9 and put one in each box so that the resulting four two-digit numbers add to a total of 100.

Here are the prices for 1st and 2nd class mail within the UK. You have an unlimited number of each of these stamps. Which stamps would you need to post a parcel weighing 825g?

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?

These sixteen children are standing in four lines of four, one behind the other. They are each holding a card with a number on it. Can you work out the missing numbers?

Twizzle, a female giraffe, needs transporting to another zoo. Which route will give the fastest journey?

Use these head, body and leg pieces to make Robot Monsters which are different heights.

Start by putting one million (1 000 000) into the display of your calculator. Can you reduce this to 7 using just the 7 key and add, subtract, multiply, divide and equals as many times as you like?

As you come down the ladders of the Tall Tower you collect useful spells. Which way should you go to collect the most spells?

In sheep talk the only letters used are B and A. A sequence of words is formed by following certain rules. What do you notice when you count the letters in each word?