In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

Tell your friends that you have a strange calculator that turns numbers backwards. What secret number do you have to enter to make 141 414 turn around?

Arrange three 1s, three 2s and three 3s in this square so that every row, column and diagonal adds to the same total.

Place the digits 1 to 9 into the circles so that each side of the triangle adds to the same total.

Cassandra, David and Lachlan are brothers and sisters. They range in age between 1 year and 14 years. Can you figure out their exact ages from the clues?

If each of these three shapes has a value, can you find the totals of the combinations? Perhaps you can use the shapes to make the given totals?

Choose four different digits from 1-9 and put one in each box so that the resulting four two-digit numbers add to a total of 100.

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

The picture shows a lighthouse and many underwater creatures. If you know the markings on the lighthouse are 1m apart, can you work out the distances between some of the different creatures?

In this problem you have to place four by four magic squares on the faces of a cube so that along each edge of the cube the numbers match.

Can you draw a continuous line through 16 numbers on this grid so that the total of the numbers you pass through is as high as possible?

There are nasty versions of this dice game but we'll start with the nice ones...

What do the digits in the number fifteen add up to? How many other numbers have digits with the same total but no zeros?

The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

There are over sixty different ways of making 24 by adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing all four numbers 4, 6, 6 and 8 (using each number only once). How many can you find?

Susie took cherries out of a bowl by following a certain pattern. How many cherries had there been in the bowl to start with if she was left with 14 single ones?

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Fill in the numbers to make the sum of each row, column and diagonal equal to 34. For an extra challenge try the huge American Flag magic square.

Find a great variety of ways of asking questions which make 8.

Mrs Morgan, the class's teacher, pinned numbers onto the backs of three children. Use the information to find out what the three numbers were.

Investigate the different distances of these car journeys and find out how long they take.

In this 100 square, look at the green square which contains the numbers 2, 3, 12 and 13. What is the sum of the numbers that are diagonally opposite each other? What do you notice?

Fill in the missing numbers so that adding each pair of corner numbers gives you the number between them (in the box).

Start by putting one million (1 000 000) into the display of your calculator. Can you reduce this to 7 using just the 7 key and add, subtract, multiply, divide and equals as many times as you like?

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

Use the 'double-3 down' dominoes to make a square so that each side has eight dots.

Using 3 rods of integer lengths, none longer than 10 units and not using any rod more than once, you can measure all the lengths in whole units from 1 to 10 units. How many ways can you do this?

In this investigation, you are challenged to make mobile phone numbers which are easy to remember. What happens if you make a sequence adding 2 each time?

Choose four of the numbers from 1 to 9 to put in the squares so that the differences between joined squares are odd.

Place the numbers from 1 to 9 in the squares below so that the difference between joined squares is odd. How many different ways can you do this?

Go through the maze, collecting and losing your money as you go. Which route gives you the highest return? And the lowest?

As you come down the ladders of the Tall Tower you collect useful spells. Which way should you go to collect the most spells?

These sixteen children are standing in four lines of four, one behind the other. They are each holding a card with a number on it. Can you work out the missing numbers?

In sheep talk the only letters used are B and A. A sequence of words is formed by following certain rules. What do you notice when you count the letters in each word?

Twizzle, a female giraffe, needs transporting to another zoo. Which route will give the fastest journey?

Tim had nine cards each with a different number from 1 to 9 on it. How could he have put them into three piles so that the total in each pile was 15?

Use these head, body and leg pieces to make Robot Monsters which are different heights.

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?

Zumf makes spectacles for the residents of the planet Zargon, who have either 3 eyes or 4 eyes. How many lenses will Zumf need to make all the different orders for 9 families?

Arrange eight of the numbers between 1 and 9 in the Polo Square below so that each side adds to the same total.

Move from the START to the FINISH by moving across or down to the next square. Can you find a route to make these totals?

Look carefully at the numbers. What do you notice? Can you make another square using the numbers 1 to 16, that displays the same properties?

Can you arrange fifteen dominoes so that all the touching domino pieces add to 6 and the ends join up? Can you make all the joins add to 7?

There were chews for 2p, mini eggs for 3p, Chocko bars for 5p and lollypops for 7p in the sweet shop. What could each of the children buy with their money?

A lady has a steel rod and a wooden pole and she knows the length of each. How can she measure out an 8 unit piece of pole?

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

This problem is based on the story of the Pied Piper of Hamelin. Investigate the different numbers of people and rats there could have been if you know how many legs there are altogether!