In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

Three dice are placed in a row. Find a way to turn each one so that the three numbers on top of the dice total the same as the three numbers on the front of the dice. Can you find all the ways to do. . . .

Find a great variety of ways of asking questions which make 8.

Use your logical reasoning to work out how many cows and how many sheep there are in each field.

Place the digits 1 to 9 into the circles so that each side of the triangle adds to the same total.

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

Cassandra, David and Lachlan are brothers and sisters. They range in age between 1 year and 14 years. Can you figure out their exact ages from the clues?

The value of the circle changes in each of the following problems. Can you discover its value in each problem?

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

Where can you draw a line on a clock face so that the numbers on both sides have the same total?

Mrs Morgan, the class's teacher, pinned numbers onto the backs of three children. Use the information to find out what the three numbers were.

A lady has a steel rod and a wooden pole and she knows the length of each. How can she measure out an 8 unit piece of pole?

Vera is shopping at a market with these coins in her purse. Which things could she give exactly the right amount for?

Tell your friends that you have a strange calculator that turns numbers backwards. What secret number do you have to enter to make 141 414 turn around?

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

Amy has a box containing domino pieces but she does not think it is a complete set. She has 24 dominoes in her box and there are 125 spots on them altogether. Which of her domino pieces are missing?

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

Try adding together the dates of all the days in one week. Now multiply the first date by 7 and add 21. Can you explain what happens?

There are three buckets each of which holds a maximum of 5 litres. Use the clues to work out how much liquid there is in each bucket.

Fill in the numbers to make the sum of each row, column and diagonal equal to 34. For an extra challenge try the huge American Flag magic square.

Fill in the missing numbers so that adding each pair of corner numbers gives you the number between them (in the box).

On the table there is a pile of oranges and lemons that weighs exactly one kilogram. Using the information, can you work out how many lemons there are?

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

We start with one yellow cube and build around it to make a 3x3x3 cube with red cubes. Then we build around that red cube with blue cubes and so on. How many cubes of each colour have we used?

The Scot, John Napier, invented these strips about 400 years ago to help calculate multiplication and division. Can you work out how to use Napier's bones to find the answer to these multiplications?

Arrange three 1s, three 2s and three 3s in this square so that every row, column and diagonal adds to the same total.

Annie cut this numbered cake into 3 pieces with 3 cuts so that the numbers on each piece added to the same total. Where were the cuts and what fraction of the whole cake was each piece?

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Well now, what would happen if we lost all the nines in our number system? Have a go at writing the numbers out in this way and have a look at the multiplications table.

Investigate what happens when you add house numbers along a street in different ways.

What happens when you add the digits of a number then multiply the result by 2 and you keep doing this? You could try for different numbers and different rules.

Fancy a game of cricket? Here is a mathematical version you can play indoors without breaking any windows.

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

What do the digits in the number fifteen add up to? How many other numbers have digits with the same total but no zeros?

There are nasty versions of this dice game but we'll start with the nice ones...

What happens when you add three numbers together? Will your answer be odd or even? How do you know?

This task combines spatial awareness with addition and multiplication.

Are these statements always true, sometimes true or never true?

Are these statements relating to calculation and properties of shapes always true, sometimes true or never true?

Some Games That May Be Nice or Nasty for an adult and child. Use your knowledge of place value to beat your opponent.

Investigate the different distances of these car journeys and find out how long they take.

Number problems at primary level to work on with others.

Can you draw a continuous line through 16 numbers on this grid so that the total of the numbers you pass through is as high as possible?