In this article for teachers, Elizabeth Carruthers and Maulfry Worthington explore the differences between 'recording mathematics' and 'representing mathematical thinking'.

Place the digits 1 to 9 into the circles so that each side of the triangle adds to the same total.

Cassandra, David and Lachlan are brothers and sisters. They range in age between 1 year and 14 years. Can you figure out their exact ages from the clues?

On the planet Vuv there are two sorts of creatures. The Zios have 3 legs and the Zepts have 7 legs. The great planetary explorer Nico counted 52 legs. How many Zios and how many Zepts were there?

Can you design a new shape for the twenty-eight squares and arrange the numbers in a logical way? What patterns do you notice?

What do you notice about the date 03.06.09? Or 08.01.09? This challenge invites you to investigate some interesting dates yourself.

Well now, what would happen if we lost all the nines in our number system? Have a go at writing the numbers out in this way and have a look at the multiplications table.

There are 4 jugs which hold 9 litres, 7 litres, 4 litres and 2 litres. Find a way to pour 9 litres of drink from one jug to another until you are left with exactly 3 litres in three of the jugs.

Find at least one way to put in some operation signs (+ - x ÷) to make these digits come to 100.

The value of the circle changes in each of the following problems. Can you discover its value in each problem?

Can you score 100 by throwing rings on this board? Is there more than way to do it?

Number problems at primary level that require careful consideration.

Katie had a pack of 20 cards numbered from 1 to 20. She arranged the cards into 6 unequal piles where each pile added to the same total. What was the total and how could this be done?

Number problems at primary level to work on with others.

How could you put eight beanbags in the hoops so that there are four in the blue hoop, five in the red and six in the yellow? Can you find all the ways of doing this?

If you have only four weights, where could you place them in order to balance this equaliser?

A game for 2 or more players with a pack of cards. Practise your skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to hit the target score.

What do the digits in the number fifteen add up to? How many other numbers have digits with the same total but no zeros?

This group activity will encourage you to share calculation strategies and to think about which strategy might be the most efficient.

Use 4 four times with simple operations so that you get the answer 12. Can you make 15, 16 and 17 too?

Can you put plus signs in so this is true? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 = 99 How many ways can you do it?

This magic square has operations written in it, to make it into a maze. Start wherever you like, go through every cell and go out a total of 15!

Mr. Sunshine tells the children they will have 2 hours of homework. After several calculations, Harry says he hasn't got time to do this homework. Can you see where his reasoning is wrong?

Rocco ran in a 200 m race for his class. Use the information to find out how many runners there were in the race and what Rocco's finishing position was.

On the table there is a pile of oranges and lemons that weighs exactly one kilogram. Using the information, can you work out how many lemons there are?

Find out what a Deca Tree is and then work out how many leaves there will be after the woodcutter has cut off a trunk, a branch, a twig and a leaf.

Add the sum of the squares of four numbers between 10 and 20 to the sum of the squares of three numbers less than 6 to make the square of another, larger, number.

Ten cards are put into five envelopes so that there are two cards in each envelope. The sum of the numbers inside it is written on each envelope. What numbers could be inside the envelopes?

This task, written for the National Young Mathematicians' Award 2016, focuses on 'open squares'. What would the next five open squares look like?

The clockmaker's wife cut up his birthday cake to look like a clock face. Can you work out who received each piece?

Can you make square numbers by adding two prime numbers together?

How would you count the number of fingers in these pictures?

Can you work out how many flowers there will be on the Amazing Splitting Plant after it has been growing for six weeks?

Number problems at primary level that may require determination.

Use your logical-thinking skills to deduce how much Dan's crisps and ice-cream cost altogether.

Look carefully at the numbers. What do you notice? Can you make another square using the numbers 1 to 16, that displays the same properties?

Benâ€™s class were cutting up number tracks. First they cut them into twos and added up the numbers on each piece. What patterns could they see?

A group of children are using measuring cylinders but they lose the labels. Can you help relabel them?

There are three baskets, a brown one, a red one and a pink one, holding a total of 10 eggs. Can you use the information given to find out how many eggs are in each basket?

I throw three dice and get 5, 3 and 2. Add the scores on the three dice. What do you get? Now multiply the scores. What do you notice?

This task, written for the National Young Mathematicians' Award 2016, invites you to explore the different combinations of scores that you might get on these dart boards.

A game for 2 people using a pack of cards Turn over 2 cards and try to make an odd number or a multiple of 3.

A game for 2 people. Use your skills of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to blast the asteroids.

Zumf makes spectacles for the residents of the planet Zargon, who have either 3 eyes or 4 eyes. How many lenses will Zumf need to make all the different orders for 9 families?

Arrange eight of the numbers between 1 and 9 in the Polo Square below so that each side adds to the same total.

Tim had nine cards each with a different number from 1 to 9 on it. How could he have put them into three piles so that the total in each pile was 15?

These sixteen children are standing in four lines of four, one behind the other. They are each holding a card with a number on it. Can you work out the missing numbers?

If the numbers 5, 7 and 4 go into this function machine, what numbers will come out?