Investigate the transfomations of the plane given by the 2 by 2
matrices with entries taking all combinations of values 0. -1 and
Follow hints using a little coordinate geometry, plane geometry and
trig to see how matrices are used to work on transformations of the
Choose some complex numbers and mark them by points on a graph.
Multiply your numbers by i once, twice, three times, four times,
..., n times? What happens?
The first part of an investigation into how to represent numbers
using geometric transformations that ultimately leads us to
discover numbers not on the number line.
I noticed this about streamers that have rotation symmetry : if
there was one centre of rotation there always seems to be a second
centre that also worked. Can you find a design that has only. . . .
A gallery of beautiful photos of cast ironwork friezes in Australia with a mathematical discussion of the classification of frieze patterns.
Introduces the idea of a twizzle to represent number and asks how
one can use this representation to add and subtract geometrically.
Arrow arithmetic, but with a twist.
Proofs that there are only seven frieze patterns involve complicated group theory. The symmetries of a cylinder provide an easier approach.
What groups of transformations map a regular pentagon to itself?
Points off a rolling wheel make traces. What makes those traces
This resources contains a series of interactivities designed to
support work on transformations at Key Stage 4.
How can you use twizzles to multiply and divide?
A design is repeated endlessly along a line - rather like a stream
of paper coming off a roll. Make a strip that matches itself after
rotation, or after reflection
Find out how the quaternion function G(v) = qvq^-1 gives a simple
algebraic method for working with rotations in 3-space.
This problem provides training in visualisation and representation
of 3D shapes. You will need to imagine rotating cubes, squashing
cubes and even superimposing cubes!
Make a footprint pattern using only reflections.
Take any parallelogram and draw squares on the sides of the
parallelogram. What can you prove about the quadrilateral formed by
joining the centres of these squares?
Find the shape and symmetries of the two pieces of this cut cube.
Triangle ABC has equilateral triangles drawn on its edges. Points
P, Q and R are the centres of the equilateral triangles. What can
you prove about the triangle PQR?
Charlie likes tablecloths that use as many colours as possible, but insists that his tablecloths have some symmetry. Can you work out how many colours he needs for different tablecloth designs?
There are thirteen axes of rotational symmetry of a unit cube. Describe them all. What is the average length of the parts of the axes of symmetry which lie inside the cube?
A security camera, taking pictures each half a second, films a
cyclist going by. In the film, the cyclist appears to go forward
while the wheels appear to go backwards. Why?
My train left London between 6 a.m. and 7 a.m. and arrived in Paris
between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. At the start and end of the journey the
hands on my watch were in exactly the same positions but the. . . .
Patterns that repeat in a line are strangely interesting. How many types are there and how do you tell one type from another?
A white cross is placed symmetrically in a red disc with the central square of side length sqrt 2 and the arms of the cross of length 1 unit. What is the area of the disc still showing?
Plex lets you specify a mapping between points and their images.
Then you can draw and see the transformed image.
Overlaying pentominoes can produce some effective patterns. Why not
use LOGO to try out some of the ideas suggested here?
Explore the meaning behind the algebra and geometry of matrices
with these 10 individual problems.
What is the volume of the solid formed by rotating this right
angled triangle about the hypotenuse?
An environment for exploring the properties of small groups.
The coke machine in college takes 50 pence pieces. It also takes a certain foreign coin of traditional design...
Prove that the graph of f(x) = x^3 - 6x^2 +9x +1 has rotational
symmetry. Do graphs of all cubics have rotational symmetry?
Mark a point P inside a closed curve. Is it always possible to find
two points that lie on the curve, such that P is the mid point of
the line joining these two points?
Put your visualisation skills to the test by seeing which of these
molecules can be rotated onto each other.