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Broad Topics > Numbers and the Number System > Factors and multiples

Three Times Seven

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

A three digit number abc is always divisible by 7 when 2a+3b+c is divisible by 7. Why?

Powerful Factorial

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1. The highest power of 2 that divides exactly into 6! is 4 since (6!) / (2^4 ) = 45. What is the highest power of two that divides exactly into 100!?

Remainders

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

I'm thinking of a number. When my number is divided by 5 the remainder is 4. When my number is divided by 3 the remainder is 2. Can you find my number?

Repeaters

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Choose any 3 digits and make a 6 digit number by repeating the 3 digits in the same order (e.g. 594594). Explain why whatever digits you choose the number will always be divisible by 7, 11 and 13.

Gaxinta

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

A number N is divisible by 10, 90, 98 and 882 but it is NOT divisible by 50 or 270 or 686 or 1764. It is also known that N is a factor of 9261000. What is N?

Even So

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Find some triples of whole numbers a, b and c such that a^2 + b^2 + c^2 is a multiple of 4. Is it necessarily the case that a, b and c must all be even? If so, can you explain why?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

List any 3 numbers. It is always possible to find a subset of adjacent numbers that add up to a multiple of 3. Can you explain why and prove it?

Eminit

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

The number 8888...88M9999...99 is divisible by 7 and it starts with the digit 8 repeated 50 times and ends with the digit 9 repeated 50 times. What is the value of the digit M?

Special Sums and Products

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Find some examples of pairs of numbers such that their sum is a factor of their product. eg. 4 + 12 = 16 and 4 × 12 = 48 and 16 is a factor of 48.

Big Powers

Stage: 3 and 4 Challenge Level:

Three people chose this as a favourite problem. It is the sort of problem that needs thinking time - but once the connection is made it gives access to many similar ideas.

What Numbers Can We Make Now?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Imagine we have four bags containing numbers from a sequence. What numbers can we make now?

Take Three from Five

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Caroline and James pick sets of five numbers. Charlie chooses three of them that add together to make a multiple of three. Can they stop him?

Remainder

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

What is the remainder when 2^2002 is divided by 7? What happens with different powers of 2?

Divisively So

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

How many numbers less than 1000 are NOT divisible by either: a) 2 or 5; or b) 2, 5 or 7?

AB Search

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

The five digit number A679B, in base ten, is divisible by 72. What are the values of A and B?

Ewa's Eggs

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

I put eggs into a basket in groups of 7 and noticed that I could easily have divided them into piles of 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 and always have one left over. How many eggs were in the basket?

Two Much

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Explain why the arithmetic sequence 1, 14, 27, 40, ... contains many terms of the form 222...2 where only the digit 2 appears.

Oh! Hidden Inside?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Find the number which has 8 divisors, such that the product of the divisors is 331776.

Digat

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

What is the value of the digit A in the sum below: [3(230 + A)]^2 = 49280A

Factoring Factorials

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Find the highest power of 11 that will divide into 1000! exactly.

What Numbers Can We Make?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

Expenses

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

What is the largest number which, when divided into 1905, 2587, 3951, 7020 and 8725 in turn, leaves the same remainder each time?

Shifting Times Tables

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Can you find a way to identify times tables after they have been shifted up?

Different by One

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Make a line of green and a line of yellow rods so that the lines differ in length by one (a white rod)

Multiplication Magic

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Given any 3 digit number you can use the given digits and name another number which is divisible by 37 (e.g. given 628 you say 628371 is divisible by 37 because you know that 6+3 = 2+7 = 8+1 = 9). . . .

Factorial

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

How many zeros are there at the end of the number which is the product of first hundred positive integers?

Counting Factors

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Is there an efficient way to work out how many factors a large number has?

Data Chunks

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Data is sent in chunks of two different sizes - a yellow chunk has 5 characters and a blue chunk has 9 characters. A data slot of size 31 cannot be exactly filled with a combination of yellow and. . . .

Gabriel's Problem

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Gabriel multiplied together some numbers and then erased them. Can you figure out where each number was?

What a Joke

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Each letter represents a different positive digit AHHAAH / JOKE = HA What are the values of each of the letters?

Inclusion Exclusion

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

How many integers between 1 and 1200 are NOT multiples of any of the numbers 2, 3 or 5?

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Make a set of numbers that use all the digits from 1 to 9, once and once only. Add them up. The result is divisible by 9. Add each of the digits in the new number. What is their sum? Now try some. . . .

Counting Cogs

Stage: 2 and 3 Challenge Level:

Which pairs of cogs let the coloured tooth touch every tooth on the other cog? Which pairs do not let this happen? Why?

Thirty Six Exactly

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

The number 12 = 2^2 × 3 has 6 factors. What is the smallest natural number with exactly 36 factors?

Sieve of Eratosthenes

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Follow this recipe for sieving numbers and see what interesting patterns emerge.

Times Right

Stage: 3 and 4 Challenge Level:

Using the digits 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, mulitply a two two digit numbers are multiplied to give a four digit number, so that the expression is correct. How many different solutions can you find?

Mod 3

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Prove that if a^2+b^2 is a multiple of 3 then both a and b are multiples of 3.

Squaresearch

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Consider numbers of the form un = 1! + 2! + 3! +...+n!. How many such numbers are perfect squares?

Really Mr. Bond

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

115^2 = (110 x 120) + 25, that is 13225 895^2 = (890 x 900) + 25, that is 801025 Can you explain what is happening and generalise?

Diggits

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Can you find what the last two digits of the number $4^{1999}$ are?

One to Eight

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Complete the following expressions so that each one gives a four digit number as the product of two two digit numbers and uses the digits 1 to 8 once and only once.

Factoring a Million

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

In how many ways can the number 1 000 000 be expressed as the product of three positive integers?

Dozens

Stage: 2 and 3 Challenge Level:

Do you know a quick way to check if a number is a multiple of two? How about three, four or six?

Phew I'm Factored

Stage: 4 Challenge Level:

Explore the factors of the numbers which are written as 10101 in different number bases. Prove that the numbers 10201, 11011 and 10101 are composite in any base.

Sixational

Stage: 4 and 5 Challenge Level:

The nth term of a sequence is given by the formula n^3 + 11n . Find the first four terms of the sequence given by this formula and the first term of the sequence which is bigger than one million. . . .

Product Sudoku

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

The clues for this Sudoku are the product of the numbers in adjacent squares.

Cuboids

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Find a cuboid (with edges of integer values) that has a surface area of exactly 100 square units. Is there more than one? Can you find them all?

Ben's Game

Stage: 3 Challenge Level:

Ben passed a third of his counters to Jack, Jack passed a quarter of his counters to Emma and Emma passed a fifth of her counters to Ben. After this they all had the same number of counters.