When you think of spies and secret agents, you probably wouldn’t think of mathematics. Some of the most famous code breakers in history have been mathematicians.

a) A four digit number (in base 10) aabb is a perfect square. Discuss ways of systematically finding this number. (b) Prove that 11^{10}-1 is divisible by 100.

Let N be a six digit number with distinct digits. Find the number N given that the numbers N, 2N, 3N, 4N, 5N, 6N, when written underneath each other, form a latin square (that is each row and each. . . .

Three dice are placed in a row. Find a way to turn each one so that the three numbers on top of the dice total the same as the three numbers on the front of the dice. Can you find all the ways to do. . . .

Given any 3 digit number you can use the given digits and name another number which is divisible by 37 (e.g. given 628 you say 628371 is divisible by 37 because you know that 6+3 = 2+7 = 8+1 = 9). . . .

This article for the young and old talks about the origins of our number system and the important role zero has to play in it.

Prove that if a^2+b^2 is a multiple of 3 then both a and b are multiples of 3.

How many zeros are there at the end of the number which is the product of first hundred positive integers?

Factorial one hundred (written 100!) has 24 noughts when written in full and that 1000! has 249 noughts? Convince yourself that the above is true. Perhaps your methodology will help you find the. . . .

There are 12 identical looking coins, one of which is a fake. The counterfeit coin is of a different weight to the rest. What is the minimum number of weighings needed to locate the fake coin?

Consider numbers of the form un = 1! + 2! + 3! +...+n!. How many such numbers are perfect squares?

Which set of numbers that add to 10 have the largest product?

This black box reveals random values of some important, but unusual, mathematical functions. Can you deduce the purpose of the black box?

Work with numbers big and small to estimate and calulate various quantities in biological contexts.

How many different solutions can you find to this problem? Arrange 25 officers, each having one of five different ranks a, b, c, d and e, and belonging to one of five different regiments p, q, r, s. . . .