The NRICH team are always looking for new ways to engage teachers and pupils in problem solving. Here we explain the thinking behind maths trails.

You have been given nine weights, one of which is slightly heavier than the rest. Can you work out which weight is heavier in just two weighings of the balance?

This article for teachers describes several games, found on the site, all of which have a related structure that can be used to develop the skills of strategic planning.

The number of plants in Mr McGregor's magic potting shed increases overnight. He'd like to put the same number of plants in each of his gardens, planting one garden each day. How can he do it?

Can you arrange the numbers 1 to 17 in a row so that each adjacent pair adds up to a square number?

Do you notice anything about the solutions when you add and/or subtract consecutive negative numbers?

Many numbers can be expressed as the sum of two or more consecutive integers. For example, 15=7+8 and 10=1+2+3+4. Can you say which numbers can be expressed in this way?

This is a variation of sudoku which contains a set of special clue-numbers. Each set of 4 small digits stands for the numbers in the four cells of the grid adjacent to this set.

Try to solve this very difficult problem and then study our two suggested solutions. How would you use your knowledge to try to solve variants on the original problem?

Advent Calendar 2011 - a mathematical activity for each day during the run-up to Christmas.

The challenge is to find the values of the variables if you are to solve this Sudoku.

You are given the Lowest Common Multiples of sets of digits. Find the digits and then solve the Sudoku.

You need to find the values of the stars before you can apply normal Sudoku rules.

Problem solving is at the heart of the NRICH site. All the problems give learners opportunities to learn, develop or use mathematical concepts and skills. Read here for more information.

My two digit number is special because adding the sum of its digits to the product of its digits gives me my original number. What could my number be?

Charlie and Abi put a counter on 42. They wondered if they could visit all the other numbers on their 1-100 board, moving the counter using just these two operations: x2 and -5. What do you think?

You have twelve weights, one of which is different from the rest. Using just 3 weighings, can you identify which weight is the odd one out, and whether it is heavier or lighter than the rest?

Different combinations of the weights available allow you to make different totals. Which totals can you make?

Can you find six numbers to go in the Daisy from which you can make all the numbers from 1 to a number bigger than 25?

Solve the equations to identify the clue numbers in this Sudoku problem.

A 2 by 3 rectangle contains 8 squares and a 3 by 4 rectangle contains 20 squares. What size rectangle(s) contain(s) exactly 100 squares? Can you find them all?

Four numbers on an intersection that need to be placed in the surrounding cells. That is all you need to know to solve this sudoku.

An extra constraint means this Sudoku requires you to think in diagonals as well as horizontal and vertical lines and boxes of nine.

In this Sudoku, there are three coloured "islands" in the 9x9 grid. Within each "island" EVERY group of nine cells that form a 3x3 square must contain the numbers 1 through 9.

This Sudoku, based on differences. Using the one clue number can you find the solution?

Find all the ways of placing the numbers 1 to 9 on a W shape, with 3 numbers on each leg, so that each set of 3 numbers has the same total.

Label the joints and legs of these graph theory caterpillars so that the vertex sums are all equal.

The clues for this Sudoku are the product of the numbers in adjacent squares.

Use the interactivity to listen to the bells ringing a pattern. Now it's your turn! Play one of the bells yourself. How do you know when it is your turn to ring?

A Sudoku that uses transformations as supporting clues.

This Sudoku puzzle can be solved with the help of small clue-numbers on the border lines between pairs of neighbouring squares of the grid.

Use the interactivity to play two of the bells in a pattern. How do you know when it is your turn to ring, and how do you know which bell to ring?

If you are given the mean, median and mode of five positive whole numbers, can you find the numbers?

If you have only 40 metres of fencing available, what is the maximum area of land you can fence off?

60 pieces and a challenge. What can you make and how many of the pieces can you use creating skeleton polyhedra?

Just four procedures were used to produce a design. How was it done? Can you be systematic and elegant so that someone can follow your logic?

Ben passed a third of his counters to Jack, Jack passed a quarter of his counters to Emma and Emma passed a fifth of her counters to Ben. After this they all had the same number of counters.

Use the differences to find the solution to this Sudoku.

The puzzle can be solved by finding the values of the unknown digits (all indicated by asterisks) in the squares of the $9\times9$ grid.

Four small numbers give the clue to the contents of the four surrounding cells.

This pair of linked Sudokus matches letters with numbers and hides a seasonal greeting. Can you find it?

Each clue number in this sudoku is the product of the two numbers in adjacent cells.

A pair of Sudoku puzzles that together lead to a complete solution.

A Latin square of order n is an array of n symbols in which each symbol occurs exactly once in each row and exactly once in each column.