Imagine a pyramid which is built in square layers of small cubes. If we number the cubes from the top, starting with 1, can you picture which cubes are directly below this first cube?

Can you see why 2 by 2 could be 5? Can you predict what 2 by 10 will be?

In a square in which the houses are evenly spaced, numbers 3 and 10 are opposite each other. What is the smallest and what is the largest possible number of houses in the square?

We start with one yellow cube and build around it to make a 3x3x3 cube with red cubes. Then we build around that red cube with blue cubes and so on. How many cubes of each colour have we used?

This article for teachers describes how modelling number properties involving multiplication using an array of objects not only allows children to represent their thinking with concrete materials,. . . .

What is the best way to shunt these carriages so that each train can continue its journey?

Swap the stars with the moons, using only knights' moves (as on a chess board). What is the smallest number of moves possible?

10 space travellers are waiting to board their spaceships. There are two rows of seats in the waiting room. Using the rules, where are they all sitting? Can you find all the possible ways?

Take a rectangle of paper and fold it in half, and half again, to make four smaller rectangles. How many different ways can you fold it up?

Here you see the front and back views of a dodecahedron. Each vertex has been numbered so that the numbers around each pentagonal face add up to 65. Can you find all the missing numbers?

Can you make a 3x3 cube with these shapes made from small cubes?

Imagine a wheel with different markings painted on it at regular intervals. Can you predict the colour of the 18th mark? The 100th mark?

Building up a simple Celtic knot. Try the interactivity or download the cards or have a go on squared paper.

A dog is looking for a good place to bury his bone. Can you work out where he started and ended in each case? What possible routes could he have taken?

This 100 square jigsaw is written in code. It starts with 1 and ends with 100. Can you build it up?

Can you predict when you'll be clapping and when you'll be clicking if you start this rhythm? How about when a friend begins a new rhythm at the same time?

Can you shunt the trucks so that the Cattle truck and the Sheep truck change places and the Engine is back on the main line?

Hover your mouse over the counters to see which ones will be removed. Click to remover them. The winner is the last one to remove a counter. How you can make sure you win?

In how many ways can you fit two of these yellow triangles together? Can you predict the number of ways two blue triangles can be fitted together?

A toy has a regular tetrahedron, a cube and a base with triangular and square hollows. If you fit a shape into the correct hollow a bell rings. How many times does the bell ring in a complete game?

You have 4 red and 5 blue counters. How many ways can they be placed on a 3 by 3 grid so that all the rows columns and diagonals have an even number of red counters?

How many different triangles can you make on a circular pegboard that has nine pegs?

Starting with four different triangles, imagine you have an unlimited number of each type. How many different tetrahedra can you make? Convince us you have found them all.

In each of the pictures the invitation is for you to: Count what you see. Identify how you think the pattern would continue.

Investigate the number of paths you can take from one vertex to another in these 3D shapes. Is it possible to take an odd number and an even number of paths to the same vertex?

How many different ways can you find of fitting five hexagons together? How will you know you have found all the ways?

How many different cuboids can you make when you use four CDs or DVDs? How about using five, then six?

Think of a number, square it and subtract your starting number. Is the number you’re left with odd or even? How do the images help to explain this?

Can you find ways of joining cubes together so that 28 faces are visible?

This challenge involves eight three-cube models made from interlocking cubes. Investigate different ways of putting the models together then compare your constructions.

If you have only 40 metres of fencing available, what is the maximum area of land you can fence off?

Find a cuboid (with edges of integer values) that has a surface area of exactly 100 square units. Is there more than one? Can you find them all?

Blue Flibbins are so jealous of their red partners that they will not leave them on their own with any other bue Flibbin. What is the quickest way of getting the five pairs of Flibbins safely to. . . .

Is it possible to rearrange the numbers 1,2......12 around a clock face in such a way that every two numbers in adjacent positions differ by any of 3, 4 or 5 hours?

A tetromino is made up of four squares joined edge to edge. Can this tetromino, together with 15 copies of itself, be used to cover an eight by eight chessboard?

An irregular tetrahedron is composed of four different triangles. Can such a tetrahedron be constructed where the side lengths are 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 units of length?

How many DIFFERENT quadrilaterals can be made by joining the dots on the 8-point circle?

A magician took a suit of thirteen cards and held them in his hand face down. Every card he revealed had the same value as the one he had just finished spelling. How did this work?

What is the smallest cuboid that you can put in this box so that you cannot fit another that's the same into it?

What happens to the area of a square if you double the length of the sides? Try the same thing with rectangles, diamonds and other shapes. How do the four smaller ones fit into the larger one?

How can you arrange the 5 cubes so that you need the smallest number of Brush Loads of paint to cover them? Try with other numbers of cubes as well.

What is the greatest number of counters you can place on the grid below without four of them lying at the corners of a square?

One face of a regular tetrahedron is painted blue and each of the remaining faces are painted using one of the colours red, green or yellow. How many different possibilities are there?

Cut four triangles from a square as shown in the picture. How many different shapes can you make by fitting the four triangles back together?

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outline of Little Ming and Little Fung dancing?

Slide the pieces to move Khun Phaen past all the guards into the position on the right from which he can escape to freedom.

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

Players take it in turns to choose a dot on the grid. The winner is the first to have four dots that can be joined to form a square.

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outlines of the workmen?

This article for teachers discusses examples of problems in which there is no obvious method but in which children can be encouraged to think deeply about the context and extend their ability to. . . .