This article explores ths history of theories about the shape of our planet. It is the first in a series of articles looking at the significance of geometric shapes in the history of astronomy.

The second in a series of articles on visualising and modelling shapes in the history of astronomy.

Problem solving is at the heart of the NRICH site. All the problems give learners opportunities to learn, develop or use mathematical concepts and skills. Read here for more information.

A bus route has a total duration of 40 minutes. Every 10 minutes, two buses set out, one from each end. How many buses will one bus meet on its way from one end to the other end?

Can you visualise whether these nets fold up into 3D shapes? Watch the videos each time to see if you were correct.

I found these clocks in the Arts Centre at the University of Warwick intriguing - do they really need four clocks and what times would be ambiguous with only two or three of them?

Bilbo goes on an adventure, before arriving back home. Using the information given about his journey, can you work out where Bilbo lives?

Every day at noon a boat leaves Le Havre for New York while another boat leaves New York for Le Havre. The ocean crossing takes seven days. How many boats will each boat cross during their journey?

This article is based on some of the ideas that emerged during the production of a book which takes visualising as its focus. We began to identify problems which helped us to take a structured view. . . .

Players take it in turns to choose a dot on the grid. The winner is the first to have four dots that can be joined to form a square.

On a clock the three hands - the second, minute and hour hands - are on the same axis. How often in a 24 hour day will the second hand be parallel to either of the two other hands?

A game for 2 people. Take turns joining two dots, until your opponent is unable to move.

The reader is invited to investigate changes (or permutations) in the ringing of church bells, illustrated by braid diagrams showing the order in which the bells are rung.

Euler discussed whether or not it was possible to stroll around Koenigsberg crossing each of its seven bridges exactly once. Experiment with different numbers of islands and bridges.

Place the numbers 1, 2, 3,..., 9 one on each square of a 3 by 3 grid so that all the rows and columns add up to a prime number. How many different solutions can you find?

See if you can anticipate successive 'generations' of the two animals shown here.

What can you see? What do you notice? What questions can you ask?

The aim of the game is to slide the green square from the top right hand corner to the bottom left hand corner in the least number of moves.

This task depends on groups working collaboratively, discussing and reasoning to agree a final product.

Can you recreate these designs? What are the basic units? What movement is required between each unit? Some elegant use of procedures will help - variables not essential.

The image in this problem is part of a piece of equipment found in the playground of a school. How would you describe it to someone over the phone?

Can you make sense of the charts and diagrams that are created and used by sports competitors, trainers and statisticians?

Can you make sense of the charts and diagrams that are created and used by sports competitors, trainers and statisticians?

At the time of writing the hour and minute hands of my clock are at right angles. How long will it be before they are at right angles again?

A cheap and simple toy with lots of mathematics. Can you interpret the images that are produced? Can you predict the pattern that will be produced using different wheels?

A train leaves on time. After it has gone 8 miles (at 33mph) the driver looks at his watch and sees that the hour hand is exactly over the minute hand. When did the train leave the station?

Can you cross each of the seven bridges that join the north and south of the river to the two islands, once and once only, without retracing your steps?

What is the shape of wrapping paper that you would need to completely wrap this model?

We're excited about this new program for drawing beautiful mathematical designs. Can you work out how we made our first few pictures and, even better, share your most elegant solutions with us?

Blue Flibbins are so jealous of their red partners that they will not leave them on their own with any other bue Flibbin. What is the quickest way of getting the five pairs of Flibbins safely to. . . .

Anne completes a circuit around a circular track in 40 seconds. Brenda runs in the opposite direction and meets Anne every 15 seconds. How long does it take Brenda to run around the track?

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outlines of the workmen?

Billy's class had a robot called Fred who could draw with chalk held underneath him. What shapes did the pupils make Fred draw?

A game for 2 players. Given a board of dots in a grid pattern, players take turns drawing a line by connecting 2 adjacent dots. Your goal is to complete more squares than your opponent.

If you move the tiles around, can you make squares with different coloured edges?

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outline of this sports car?

This article for teachers discusses examples of problems in which there is no obvious method but in which children can be encouraged to think deeply about the context and extend their ability to. . . .

This article looks at levels of geometric thinking and the types of activities required to develop this thinking.

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outline of this goat and giraffe?

Slide the pieces to move Khun Phaen past all the guards into the position on the right from which he can escape to freedom.

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outlines of the candle and sundial?

Charlie and Alison have been drawing patterns on coordinate grids. Can you picture where the patterns lead?

Find a cuboid (with edges of integer values) that has a surface area of exactly 100 square units. Is there more than one? Can you find them all?

Choose a couple of the sequences. Try to picture how to make the next, and the next, and the next... Can you describe your reasoning?

This article for teachers describes how modelling number properties involving multiplication using an array of objects not only allows children to represent their thinking with concrete materials,. . . .

What happens when you turn these cogs? Investigate the differences between turning two cogs of different sizes and two cogs which are the same.

Here's a simple way to make a Tangram without any measuring or ruling lines.

Lyndon Baker describes how the Mobius strip and Euler's law can introduce pupils to the idea of topology.

Can you fit the tangram pieces into the outline of Little Ming and Little Fung dancing?

How many moves does it take to swap over some red and blue frogs? Do you have a method?