In this article for teachers, Bernard Bagnall describes how to find digital roots and suggests that they can be worth exploring when confronted by a sequence of numbers.

How many four digit square numbers are composed of even numerals? What four digit square numbers can be reversed and become the square of another number?

Find the highest power of 11 that will divide into 1000! exactly.

6! = 6 x 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1. The highest power of 2 that divides exactly into 6! is 4 since (6!) / (2^4 ) = 45. What is the highest power of two that divides exactly into 100!?

A three digit number abc is always divisible by 7 when 2a+3b+c is divisible by 7. Why?

Do you know a quick way to check if a number is a multiple of two? How about three, four or six?

The flow chart requires two numbers, M and N. Select several values for M and try to establish what the flow chart does.

Choose any 3 digits and make a 6 digit number by repeating the 3 digits in the same order (e.g. 594594). Explain why whatever digits you choose the number will always be divisible by 7, 11 and 13.

Ben passed a third of his counters to Jack, Jack passed a quarter of his counters to Emma and Emma passed a fifth of her counters to Ben. After this they all had the same number of counters.

Can you show that 1^99 + 2^99 + 3^99 + 4^99 + 5^99 is divisible by 5?

Lyndon chose this as one of his favourite problems. It is accessible but needs some careful analysis of what is included and what is not. A systematic approach is really helpful.

Think of any three-digit number. Repeat the digits. The 6-digit number that you end up with is divisible by 91. Is this a coincidence?

Caroline and James pick sets of five numbers. Charlie chooses three of them that add together to make a multiple of three. Can they stop him?

Imagine we have four bags containing numbers from a sequence. What numbers can we make now?

What is the remainder when 2^2002 is divided by 7? What happens with different powers of 2?

List any 3 numbers. It is always possible to find a subset of adjacent numbers that add up to a multiple of 3. Can you explain why and prove it?

Powers of numbers behave in surprising ways. Take a look at some of these and try to explain why they are true.

Imagine we have four bags containing a large number of 1s, 4s, 7s and 10s. What numbers can we make?

How many pairs of numbers can you find that add up to a multiple of 11? Do you notice anything interesting about your results?

Mathematicians are always looking for efficient methods for solving problems. How efficient can you be?

A number N is divisible by 10, 90, 98 and 882 but it is NOT divisible by 50 or 270 or 686 or 1764. It is also known that N is a factor of 9261000. What is N?

Is there an efficient way to work out how many factors a large number has?

The number 8888...88M9999...99 is divisible by 7 and it starts with the digit 8 repeated 50 times and ends with the digit 9 repeated 50 times. What is the value of the digit M?

The nth term of a sequence is given by the formula n^3 + 11n . Find the first four terms of the sequence given by this formula and the first term of the sequence which is bigger than one million. . . .

Amazing as it may seem the three fives remaining in the following `skeleton' are sufficient to reconstruct the entire long division sum.

Find the number which has 8 divisors, such that the product of the divisors is 331776.

A game that tests your understanding of remainders.

Whenever a monkey has peaches, he always keeps a fraction of them each day, gives the rest away, and then eats one. How long could he make his peaches last for?

Prove that if a^2+b^2 is a multiple of 3 then both a and b are multiples of 3.

Consider numbers of the form un = 1! + 2! + 3! +...+n!. How many such numbers are perfect squares?

Play the divisibility game to create numbers in which the first two digits make a number divisible by 2, the first three digits make a number divisible by 3...

How many numbers less than 1000 are NOT divisible by either: a) 2 or 5; or b) 2, 5 or 7?

I put eggs into a basket in groups of 7 and noticed that I could easily have divided them into piles of 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 and always have one left over. How many eggs were in the basket?

What is the value of the digit A in the sum below: [3(230 + A)]^2 = 49280A

What is the largest number which, when divided into 1905, 2587, 3951, 7020 and 8725 in turn, leaves the same remainder each time?

Can you guarantee that, for any three numbers you choose, the product of their differences will always be an even number?

The five digit number A679B, in base ten, is divisible by 72. What are the values of A and B?

Take any four digit number. Move the first digit to the 'back of the queue' and move the rest along. Now add your two numbers. What properties do your answers always have?

Take any pair of numbers, say 9 and 14. Take the larger number, fourteen, and count up in 14s. Then divide each of those values by the 9, and look at the remainders.

This article takes the reader through divisibility tests and how they work. An article to read with pencil and paper to hand.

Here is a Sudoku with a difference! Use information about lowest common multiples to help you solve it.

I'm thinking of a number. When my number is divided by 5 the remainder is 4. When my number is divided by 3 the remainder is 2. Can you find my number?

Given any 3 digit number you can use the given digits and name another number which is divisible by 37 (e.g. given 628 you say 628371 is divisible by 37 because you know that 6+3 = 2+7 = 8+1 = 9). . . .

Details are given of how check codes are constructed (using modulus arithmetic for passports, bank accounts, credit cards, ISBN book numbers, and so on. A list of codes is given and you have to check. . . .

Suppose an operator types a US Bank check code into a machine and transposes two adjacent digits will the machine pick up every error of this type? Does the same apply to ISBN numbers; will a machine. . . .

Three people chose this as a favourite problem. It is the sort of problem that needs thinking time - but once the connection is made it gives access to many similar ideas.

The four digits 5, 6, 7 and 8 are put at random in the spaces of the number : 3 _ 1 _ 4 _ 0 _ 9 2 Calculate the probability that the answer will be a multiple of 396.

Find the values of n for which 1^n + 8^n - 3^n - 6^n is divisible by 6.

Take any prime number greater than 3 , square it and subtract one. Working on the building blocks will help you to explain what is special about your results.