Learn about the link between logical arguments and electronic circuits. Investigate the logical connectives by making and testing your own circuits and fill in the blanks in truth tables to record your findings.
Investigate circuits and record your findings in this simple introduction to truth tables and logic.
Work with numbers big and small to estimate and calculate various quantities in biological contexts.
This problem is linked to the project Observing the Sun and the Moon, from our STEMclubs projects. Observing the Sun is interesting but potentially dangerous - no one should ever observe the Sun directly with the naked eye. One way round
this is to use a pinhole camera.
The principle of the pinhole camera is the principle behind all cameras. Pinhole cameras are an example of the camera obscura, which is Latin for a vaulted room (camera) which is dark (obscura). A camera obscura projects an image of its surroundings onto a screen, and is an early fore-runner
of modern photography.
The pinhole camera (and camera obscura) works by reflecting light off an object which is then focused onto a surface, creating an image of the object on the surface. Focusing would be via a lens in a modern camera, but in the pinhole camera it is the pinhole which focuses the rays of light.
In situations where we might use a camera, light rays travel in straight lines which means we can use geometrical principles to investigate what is happening in the pinhole camera.
The diagram on the right illustrates how the pinhole camera works. The upright arrow represents an object. Light rays travel from the object through the pinhole and onto a surface on which the image of the arrow can be seen.
Using similar triangles, we can work out how big the image will be and we can also see why it will be upside down compared to the original object.
Students should be encouraged to make their own pinhole cameras, and to find out how the image appears in relation to the object by experiment. Once they have grasped that (a) the image is upside down, and (b) that its size varies depending on where the pinhole and the image surface are placed relative to the object, then data can be collected.
Experimentally, it is good practice to clarify what the variables are - for a given object, these are the distance of the object from the pinhole, the distance between the pinhole and the image surface, and the height of the image. Either the distance of the object from the pinhole or the distance of the pinhole from the image surface should be kept constant. The other distance will
then be the independent variable, with the image height the dependent variable.
Graphing the results should produce a straight line, indicating a linear relationship.
A diagram like that above will help them to understand what is going on, and how the heights of the objects and the image relate to each other.
Challenge students to explain with a diagram why a large hole will give a bright but fuzzy image, while a small hole will give a sharper, but less intense, image.
Suggest students start by varying the position of the screen only, keeping everything else constant, and see what effect this has on the height of the image.