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Rotating Triangle

What happens to the perimeter of triangle ABC as the two smaller circles change size and roll around inside the bigger circle?

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A 'doodle' is a closed intersecting curve drawn without taking pencil from paper. Only two lines cross at each intersection or vertex (never 3), that is the vertex points must be 'double points' not 'triple points'. Number the vertex points in any order. Starting at any point on the doodle, trace it until you get back to where you started. Write down the numbers of the vertices as you pass through them. So you have a [not necessarily unique] list of numbers for each doodle. Prove that 1)each vertex number in a list occurs twice. [easy!] 2)between each pair of vertex numbers in a list there are an even number of other numbers [hard!]

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Russian Cubes

How many different cubes can be painted with three blue faces and three red faces? A boy (using blue) and a girl (using red) paint the faces of a cube in turn so that the six faces are painted in order 'blue then red then blue then red then blue then red'. Having finished one cube, they begin to paint the next one. Prove that the girl can choose the faces she paints so as to make the second cube the same as the first.

Tower of Hanoi

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:2 Challenge Level:2

Look at the sequence below:
$1, 2, 4, 8, 16...$

Can you describe how to get from one term to the next?

Can you describe the $n^{th}$ term of the sequence?

Now try adding together terms from the sequence:
$1 + 2$
$1 + 2 + 4$
$1 + 2 + 4 + 8$
Do you notice anything interesting?

Can you predict what $1 + 2 + 4 + ... + 64 + 128$ would be? Check to see if you are right.

How could you write the answer to $1 + 2 + 4 + ... + 2^n$?
Justify why your formula works.

Hint for building block B: Think about moving all the discs except the largest one onto the middle peg first.

Hint for Extension question: Current theory and observations suggest that between 13.5 and 14 billion years have elapsed since the Big Bang.