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Euler's Squares

Euler found four whole numbers such that the sum of any two of the numbers is a perfect square. Three of the numbers that he found are a = 18530, b=65570, c=45986. Find the fourth number, x. You could do this by trial and error, and a spreadsheet would be a good tool for such work. Write down a+x = P^2, b+x = Q^2, c+x = R^2, and then focus on Q^2-R^2=b-c which is known. Moreover you know that Q > sqrtb and R > sqrtc . Use this to show that Q-R is less than or equal to 41 . Use a spreadsheet to calculate values of Q+R , Q and x for values of Q-R from 1 to 41 , and hence to find the value of x for which a+x is a perfect square.

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Diophantine N-tuples

Take any whole number q. Calculate q^2 - 1. Factorize q^2-1 to give two factors a and b (not necessarily q+1 and q-1). Put c = a + b + 2q . Then you will find that ab+1 , bc+1 and ca+1 are all perfect squares. Prove that this method always gives three perfect squares. The numbers a1, a2, ... an are called a Diophantine n-tuple if aras + 1 is a perfect square whenever r is not equal to s . The whole subject started with Diophantus of Alexandria who found that the rational numbers 1/16, 33/16, 68/16 and 105/16 have this property. Fermat was the first person to find a Diophantine 4-tuple with whole numbers, namely 1, 3, 8 and 120. Even now no Diophantine 5-tuple with whole numbers is known.

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There's a Limit

Explore the continued fraction: 2+3/(2+3/(2+3/2+...)) What do you notice when successive terms are taken? What happens to the terms if the fraction goes on indefinitely?

Data Chunks

Stage: 4 Challenge Level: Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3 Challenge Level:3
Be systematic : start with red rods and try light green, then purple, and so on, working through the rods in order of size.

Next have light green with purple, then yellow, and so on.

Next take purple . . . you get the idea?

Making careful notes and producing tables are essential.