Why do this problem?
gives practice in calculating with fractions in a challenging setting. It also requires the use of factors and multiples. While doing the problem learners will need to express a smaller whole number as a fraction of a larger one and find equivalent fractions. This activity will require some estimating
and trial and improvement, combined with working systematically.
You could start by showing the picture in the problem and explaining the task orally to the group. Give them a chance to think on their own for a minute then ask them to talk to a partner about how they might start the problem. Sharing some ideas will help you ascertain whether learners understand the task and it will give you the chance to talk through any misconceptions they may have. It
may be helpful to collate some known facts or suggestions on the board. At this stage, welcome all ideas for how to begin as long as they are backed up by logical reasons. It is likely that many will involve testing a size for the booklet, but different children may have different starting points for the size. Others might want to test total numbers of counters.
After that encourage them to work in pairs on the problem from a printed sheet (this sheet is photocopiable) so that they are able to talk through their ideas with a partner. Make sure that learners have access to any resources that they require, such as squared
paper, coloured pens/pencils, mini-whiteboards, plain paper, counters ... Warn them that you would like them to be able to explain how they approached the problem at the end of the lesson. You could ask each pair or group to produce a poster of their working.
In the plenary, you could invite the class to look at each other's posters and ask each other questions about the methods used.
What shape is the booklet? How are you going to work out its size?
How many holes could the booklet could take up?
What do you know about the factors of the total number of discs?
Learners could find out possible fractions for the differently coloured discs if the square booklet was larger, say $6 \times 6$.
Some children my find it helpful for you to structure the approach a little. You could suggest making a list of the possible sizes for the square booklet then working out the number of remaining small square holes for the coloured discs.
This activity has been made into a group task here.